Flights from Mongolia to Germany

Flights from Mongolia to Germany

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Ulaanbaatar to Frankfurt

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Ulaanbaatar to Leipzig

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Ulaanbaatar to Karlsruhe

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Ulaanbaatar to Erfurt

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Ulaanbaatar to Muenster

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Ulaanbaatar to Friedrichshafen

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Ulaanbaatar to Kassel

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Ulaanbaatar to Paderborn

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  • About Mongolia

Traveling from Germany to Mongolia: A Journey Across Continents

Map with German Mongolian flag

Germany and Mongolia may seem worlds apart, but with the right planning, you can embark on an exciting adventure that bridges cultures, landscapes, and historical legacies. Whether you’re a seasoned traveler or a curious explorer, this guide will provide essential information on how to traverse the vast expanse between these two fascinating countries.

1. Choosing Your Route

Before you pack your bags, consider the various transportation options available for your journey. Here are the primary ways to travel from Germany to Mongolia:

1.1. By Air

Recommended Option : Fly from Frankfurt to Ulaanbaatar (UBN) in approximately 11 hours and 10 minutes. The flight covers a distance of around 6,638 kilometers.

Airlines: MIAT Mongolian Airlines, Turkish Airlines, and Air China operate flights between Frankfurt (FRA) and Ulaanbaatar (UBN).

Prices range from $459 to $1,025 .

Cheapest Option : If you’re on a budget, consider flying from Frankfurt to Bayankhongor (BYN) with a layover. The total travel time is approximately 37 hours and 10 minutes, covering a distance of 6,538 kilometers.

Prices range from $326 to $1,209 .

1.2. Overlanding Adventure

For the intrepid traveler, overlanding through Mongolia offers a unique experience. Instead of flying or taking the train, embark on a vast loop that connects some of Mongolia’s most treasured hotspots and wilderness hideaways. This land-based journey allows you to immerse yourself in the stunning landscapes and local culture.

2. Practical Tips and Considerations  Mongolian tour

Now that you’ve chosen your route, here are some practical tips to make your Germany-to-Mongolia adventure smoother:

2.1. Visa Requirements

Check the visa requirements for both countries. Obtain the necessary visas well in advance to avoid any last-minute hassles.

2.2. Packing Essentials

Pack lightweight clothing suitable for both warm and cool climates. Mongolia experiences extreme temperature variations, so layering is essential.

Don’t forget essentials like a sturdy backpack, comfortable walking shoes, and a reliable travel adapter.

2.3. Cultural Etiquette

Familiarize yourself with Mongolian customs and traditions. Respect local norms, especially when visiting monasteries and interacting with nomadic communities.

2.4. Health Precautions

Consult your doctor regarding vaccinations and health precautions specific to Mongolia.

Carry a basic first aid kit and any necessary medications.

3. Exploring Mongolia  

Once you arrive in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia’s capital, get ready to explore the vast steppes, ancient monasteries, and nomadic lifestyle. Here are some must-see destinations:

3.1. Terelj National Park

view of Terelj National Park

Terelj National Park , also known as Gorkhi-Terelj National Park , is a captivating wilderness area located just 60 kilometers southeast of Ulaanbaatar , Mongolia’s capital city. This park, covering 2,864 square kilometers , offers a mesmerizing blend of high mountains, rugged cliffs, lush forests, and pristine rivers. From the iconic Turtle Rock  to the soothing Yestii Hot Water Springs , Terelj beckons travelers with its natural wonders. Whether you’re an intrepid adventurer or a seeker of tranquility, let the rugged beauty of Mongolia’s wilderness leave an indelible mark on your soul. 🌿🏞️🇲🇳

3.2. Kharkhorin (Karakorum)


Kharkhorin , also known as  Karakorum , is an archaeological site and former capital of the Mongols, located in the Orkhon Valley  in the present-day Övörkhangai Province of Mongolia . It served as the capital of the Mongol Empire  from 1235 to 1260 , during the period of the United Mongol Empire. Although initially a yurt town, it transformed into a thriving trade center under Ögödei Khan , attracting merchants, missionaries, and diplomats. With a population of around ten thousand people, Karakorum was cosmopolitan for its time. However, its significance waned when Qubilai Qa’an  moved the capital to Daidu (Beijing)  in northern China. Despite its decline, the area remains historically important, with the Erdene Zuu Monastery  built on the site of Ögödei Qa’an’s palace1 2 .

3.3. Gobi Desert

Camels in Gobi desert

The Gobi Desert , spanning parts of southern Mongolia and northern China, is a vast and arid expanse known for its shifting sand dunes, dramatic canyons, and unique desert flora and fauna. It is the largest desert in Asia  and the sixth largest in the world . The Gobi’s name originates from the Mongolian word “Govi,” which refers to all waterless regions on the Mongolian Plateau. However, in Chinese, “Gobi” specifically denotes rocky, semi-desert areas like the Gobi itself rather than sandy deserts1 2 . Despite its reputation as a sandy desert, much of the Gobi consists of exposed bare rock. Its climate is cold, with frost and occasional snow on its dunes. The average annual rainfall is about 194 mm (7.6 in), and it sits at an elevation of approximately 910–1,520 meters (2,990–4,990 feet) above sea level1 . The Gobi’s historical significance extends beyond its harsh terrain—it served as a reservoir of dinosaur fossils and played a role in the Silk Road trade route 3 4 . 🏜️🌵🇲🇳🇨🇳

3.4. Khuvsgul lake

Lake and boat

Lake Khuvsgul , also known as Lake Khövsgöl , is the largest freshwater lake in Mongolia by volume and the second largest by area after Uvs Lake. Located near the northern border of Mongolia, approximately 200 kilometers (124 miles)  west of the southern end of Lake Baikal, it is often nicknamed the “Younger sister” of these two “sister lakes.” At an elevation of 1,645 meters (5,397 feet) above sea level, Lake Khuvsgul stretches 136 kilometers (85 miles) in length and plunges to a depth of 262 meters (860 feet) . Remarkably, it holds nearly 70% of Mongolia’s fresh water  and about 0.4% of all the fresh water in the world . The town of Hatgal lies at the southern end of the lake. Lake Khuvsgul’s pristine waters are potable without any treatment, making it a significant drinking water reserve for Mongolia. Its watershed is relatively small, and it is drained at the southern end by the Egiin Gol, which ultimately flows into Lake Baikal. Surrounded by several mountain ranges, including the Bürenkhaan / Mönkh Saridag peak (3,492 meters or 11,457 feet), Lake Khuvsgul freezes over completely in winter, allowing transport routes on its surface. An elliptical island named Wooden Boy Island  adds to the lake’s allure. This ancient lake, more than 2 million years old , remains a pristine gem in the heart of northern Mongolia, where the dominant tree is the Siberian larch. 🏞️💙🇲🇳

Western Mongolia and Eagle hunters

horseman with eagle

Mongolia’s Eagle Hunters  in the western part of the country, particularly among the Kazakh ethnic group , practice an ancient and awe-inspiring tradition: hunting with golden eagles . For over 4,000 years , these skilled hunters have trained these revered birds of prey to capture small mammals like hares and foxes in the harsh mountainous terrain of the Altai region . The bond between the eagle and its hunter is profound, rooted in mutual respect and a deep understanding of the natural world. Historically, this practice was handed down from father to son, but some remarkable women have risen to excel in this male-dominated field. Today, however, there are only 10 female Mongolian golden-eagle hunters  left, including huntress Zamanbol . These hunters dress in traditional garb, ride on horseback, and form an almost symbiotic relationship with their eagles. The eagles, captured at around four years old, bond with their human partners over a decade of hunting together. During the hunt, the silent hunters perch atop vantage points, release their golden eagles, and watch as the birds swoop down to capture prey. This ancient art, preserved through festivals and competitions, offers a glimpse into a way of life that has remained largely unchanged for centuries1 2 . 🏞️🦅🇲🇳

Conclusion of Traveling from Germany to Mongolia

Traveling from Germany to Mongolia is an adventure of a lifetime. Whether you choose the skies or the open road, embrace the journey, connect with locals, and create memories that will last forever.

Bon voyage!  🌍🛫🗺️


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Personal travel experiences and research.

Lake Khövsgöl - Wikipedia

Is Khuvsgul Lake in Mongolia Worth Visiting? | The Nomadic Vegan

Khuvsgul lake: Interesting 7 facts You May Not Know - all about Mongolia

Khuvsgul Lake - Escape To Mongolia

The Best 7-Day Itinerary to Khuvsgul Lake - Meanwhile in Mongolia  🏞️💙🇲🇳

Gobi Desert - Wikipedia

Gobi Desert - Simple English Wikipedia

Gobi Desert - New World Encyclopedia

Gobi Desert | Map, Plants, Animals, & Facts | Britannica  🏜️🌵🇲🇳🇨🇳

Mongolia’s Eagle Hunters - The Last Nomads 2024

Mongolian Eagle Hunters from Western Mongolia

Hunting with Eagles | Golden Eagle hunter in Mongolia

Mongolia’s Fascinating Eagle Hunting Tradition and the Golden Eagle Festival

An Introduction To The Eagle Hunters Of Mongolia 🏞️🦅🇲🇳

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Security Alert May 17, 2024

Worldwide caution, update may 10, 2024, information for u.s. citizens in the middle east.

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Travel Advisory July 24, 2023

Mongolia - level 1: exercise normal precautions.

Reissued with obsolete COVID-19 page links removed.

Exercise normal precautions in Mongolia.

Read the  country information page  for additional information on travel to Mongolia.

If you travel to Mongolia, you should:

  • Enroll in the  Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP)  to receive Alerts and make it easier to locate you in an emergency.
  • Monitor local media for breaking events and adjust your plans based on new information.
  • Follow the Department of State on  Facebook  and  Twitter .
  • Review the  Country Security Report  for Mongolia.
  • Visit the CDC page for the latest  Travel Health Information  related to your travel.
  • Prepare a contingency plan for emergency situations. Review the  Traveler’s Checklist .

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Quick Facts

Six months from date of entry.

One page per stamp.

Not required for stays of fewer than 90 days. All visitors must register with Mongolian Immigration within 48 hours of arrival.

Mongolian law requires travelers to declare any cash, financial instruments, and cryptocurrency equal to or greater than 15 million Mongolian tugrik (MNT), approximately 5,250 USD as of September 2020, in value to a customs official upon entry into Mongolia.

Mongolian law requires travelers to declare any cash, financial instruments, and cryptocurrency equal to or greater than 15 million Mongolian tugrik (MNT), approximately 5,250 USD as of September 2020, in value to a customs official upon their exit from the country.

Embassies and Consulates

U.s. embassy ulaanbaatar.

Denver Street #3 11th Micro-District Ulaanbaatar 14190 Mongolia Telephone: +976-7007-6001 Emergency after-hours telephone: Please call the main Embassy switchboard at +976-7007-6001 Fax: +976-7007-6016 Email:  [email protected]

Destination Description

Learn about the U.S. relationship to countries around the world.

Entry, Exit and Visa Requirements

Visit the Mongolian Immigration Agency’s website or the website of the Mongolian Embassy in Washington, DC for the most current information on entry, exit, and visa requirements.

Tourism & Business Travel:  You do not need a visa if visiting for fewer than 90 days, but your passport must be valid for at least six months beyond your date of arrival. All foreign nationals, no matter their duration of stay, must register with the Immigration Agency of Mongolia within 48 hours of their arrival in country. This can be done by the individual themselves or by the individual or entity providing housing for the foreign national. Registration can be done online through the Immigration Agency of Mongolia’s website . Failure to register may result in fines upon departure and you may not be allowed to depart the country until the fine is paid in full to the Mongolian Immigration Agency.

You will also be fined if you stay beyond your 90-day admission, even if due to circumstances beyond your control. This fine, which accumulates daily for every day beyond 90 days, must be paid in full before Mongolian authorities will allow you to depart.

Work, Study, Reside: If you plan to visit, work, study, or reside in Mongolia for more than 90 days you must apply for a visa at the Mongolian Embassy in Washington, DC , the Mongolian Consulate General in San Francisco , or the Mongolian Mission to the United Nations in New York before you depart the United States.

Overland Travel to/from China or Russia:  Only the Zamiin Uud border crossing in the south with China and the Sukhbaatar/Altanbulag border crossing in the north with Russia, are always open to foreign travelers. Other overland ports of entry are open sporadically. The status of border crossings is available in Mongolian.

See the Country Specific Information pages on China and Russia for additional information on the entry, exit, and transit requirements for those countries.

Other Entry and Exit Requirements:  The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Mongolia.

Minors traveling with guardians who are not their parents must travel with a signed, notarized letter from at least one parent authorizing the minor’s travel. Minors traveling alone by air must present a signed, notarized letter from at least one parent attesting that the minor will utilize the services of the airline to ensure the child is accompanied throughout the trip.

Additional Information:

  • The Embassy of Mongolia is located at: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 333-7117 and 202 333-7017; email [email protected] .
  • The Consulate General of Mongolia is located at: 465 California Street Suite 200, San Francisco, CA 94104; telephone (415) 622-4000; email [email protected] .
  • The Permanent Mission of Mongolia to the United Nations is located at: 6 East 77 th Street, New York, NY 10075; telephone (212) 861-9460; email [email protected] .

Find information on dual nationality , prevention of international child abduction and customs regulations on our websites.

Safety and Security

Travelers are urged to review the Mongolia Travel Advisory , which provides information about safety and security concerns affecting the country.

The phone number to report crimes to the local police in Mongolia is 102 . The number to call an ambulance or fire truck in an emergency is 103 . Please note that local authorities, including the operators responding to these emergency numbers, do not commonly speak English.

Crime: Mongolia is a relatively safe country for foreigners. However, both street crime and violent crime are on the rise, especially in the larger towns and cities. Crime typically peaks during the Naadam summer festival in July and during the Tsagaan Sar (Lunar New Year) festival in January or February. Most street crime occurs late at night, often outside bars and nightclubs.

Theft: Pickpocketing and bag-snatching can occur at any time, especially in crowded places like markets, train stations, and popular tourist attractions. You should take precautions to protect your personal effects when in public. The Embassy has also received reports of visitors’ accommodations being burgled while occupied. These burglaries most often occurred when travelers were staying in yurt (known in Mongolia as ger) camps where locking the door to the accommodation may be impossible.

Robbery: The most common form of robbery experienced by visitors to Mongolia is mugging. You are most likely to be mugged if you are alone in unfamiliar urban neighborhoods after dark, or in unregistered private vehicles operating as taxis. Stick to well-lit and well-established tourist areas and use registered taxis whenever possible.

Sexual assault: Though infrequent, the Embassy does receive reports of sexual assaults perpetrated against travelers. These reports indicate that perpetrators are most often familiar with the victim in some way such as tour guides or employees of locations frequented by tourists, like ger camps and monasteries. If you are a victim of sexual assault contact the Mongolian police immediately and seek assistance from the Embassy by calling +976 7007-6001. Female travelers are encouraged to avoid traveling alone in Mongolia and all travelers should research and hire only reputable tour agencies with established safety and security records, especially when visiting remote areas far from the capital.

The police will instruct victims of sexual assault to obtain an examination at the criminal forensic institute, which is in Ulaanbaatar city or in provincial centers. A medical check from any other clinic/hospital will not be admitted into evidence at any judicial proceeding. The Embassy can assist in helping you locate these centers.

Domestic Violence: U.S. citizen victims of domestic violence are encouraged to contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance.

Street harassment: Street harassment is especially prevalent at night and in areas outside the capital. The most common targets of street harassment are unaccompanied women and foreign men accompanying Mongolian or other Asian women. Street harassment may range from verbal abuse to physical assault. Certain nationalist groups also perpetrate premeditated attacks against foreigners. Most street harassment occurs in or near bars and nightclubs, and alcohol is often involved. All travelers should avoid walking alone after dark, avoid using unregistered taxi cabs, and moderate their use of alcohol in order to avoid becoming an easy target for harassment in public.

Drug offenses: Mongolian police are particularly keen on combatting the use of drugs, a problem they generally see as imported by foreigners. Penalties for drug possession and or trafficking in Mongolia range from one to twelve years imprisonment.

Smuggling of contraband goods, antiquities, and wildlife: Smuggling of these items is prevalent across both the Russian and Chinese borders. Travelers have been known to be duped into transporting contraband goods or controlled antiquities from Mongolia. Be wary of other passengers requesting help with their luggage, as it could contain illicit articles. Penalties for smuggling in Mongolia vary based on the items smuggled and range from one month of electronic monitoring to eight years imprisonment and fines from 450,000 MNT to 40,000,000 MNT equivalent to 160 USD to 14,000 USD as of September 2020.

Demonstrations: Demonstrations are common in many parts of Mongolia but are most prominent in the capital Ulaanbaatar. Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can become confrontational and escalate into violence. Protesters may block traffic on roads, including major thoroughfares. U.S. citizens should avoid demonstration areas and exercise caution if near any protests. Some demonstrations by Mongolian ultra-nationalists take a xenophobic turn and may place foreigners at heightened risk should they encounter these events. U.S. citizens should avoid participating in demonstrations and other activities that might be deemed political by Mongolian authorities.

Alcohol: If you choose to drink alcohol, it is important to do so in moderation and to stop and seek medical attention if you begin to feel ill. Alcohol is an important aspect of Mongolian social culture and strangers may offer to drink with travelers as a welcoming gesture. While most of these offers are innocuous and truly a friendly gesture, travelers should be wary of accepting beverages offered on the street by strangers who approach them late at night as these are often the precursor to a robbery. The prevalent use of alcohol is also connected to a high frequency of physical altercations sometimes resulting in injury. U.S. citizen travelers are known to have become wittingly or unwittingly involved in such altercations and injured.

Driving under the influence: Mongolian police take driving under the influence very seriously and enforcement is vigorous in urban areas. Penalties for driving under the influence in Mongolia include a one-year suspension of driving privileges and a 400,000 MNT fine, roughly 140 USD as of September 2020. Travelers should exercise the same precautions as they would in the United States, use of a designated driver or a taxi, to avoid operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol. 

Victims of Crime:

Local authorities are responsible for investigating and prosecuting crimes. If you are the victim of a crime you should contact the local authorities to file a Mongolian police report. You should also inform the U.S. Embassy. A crime may only be reported in person at the local police district having jurisdiction over the location where the crime occurred. Before reporting a crime, you may wish to consult an attorney. The U.S. Embassy maintains a list of English-speaking lawyers that you may access online. You must have your passport or residency permit with you. 

Once you report a crime to the police Mongolian law requires that you remain in the country for the duration of both the investigation and any subsequent trial. In some instances, the law provides for a victim to appoint a legal representative to take their place.  

The police will instruct victims of assault or sexual assault to undergo an examination by the criminal forensic institute which is located in Ulaanbaatar or in provincial centers. No other medical examination will be accepted as evidence by Mongolian authorities. The Embassy can assist in helping you locate these centers.

It is important to note that, if a victim does not file a complaint, police may refuse to investigate the crime--even if they have probable cause to suspect that a crime took place. 

Please see our webpage on help for U.S. victims of crime overseas . 

If you are the victim of a crime the U.S. Embassy can:

  • help you find appropriate medical care and provide a list of doctors and hospitals
  • assist you in reporting a crime to the police
  • contact relatives or friends with your written consent
  • explain the local criminal justice process in general terms
  • provide a list of local attorneys
  • provide our information on victim’s compensation programs in the U.S. as well as local resources
  • provide an emergency loan for repatriation, which includes accommodation and flights back to the United States and/or limited medical support in cases of destitution
  • replace a stolen, lost, or damaged passport

Tourism: The tourism industry is unevenly regulated. Mongolia’s vast area and limited road and communications infrastructure make emergency response challenging for local and national authorities. Mongolia’s severe weather—desert conditions in the summer in many tourist areas and dangerously cold in the winter (-40° F) across the country—exacerbates the potential for urgent situations, especially in the event of injury or becoming lost or disoriented outside of city centers. The Embassy recommends travelers not drive outside of Ulaanbaatar or other city centers after sunset.  In winter visitors should always keep high-quality cold-weather clothing in vehicles, even for short trips, to protect oneself in the event of delay or becoming stranded.  Routine safety inspections for emergency and medical equipment and facilities do not commonly occur. Hazardous areas/activities are not always identified with appropriate signage, and tour guides and tourist attraction staff may not be adequately trained or certified by the host government or recognized authorities in the field. In the event of an injury, basic medical treatment is typically available only in/near major cities, with significant limitations on the availability of medication and quality of health care.  First responders are generally unable to quickly access areas outside of major cities to provide urgent medical treatment.  U.S. citizens are encouraged to purchase medical evacuation insurance .  

Local Laws & Special Circumstances

Criminal Penalties: You are subject to local laws. If you violate local laws, even unknowingly, then you may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.

Furthermore, some laws are prosecutable in the United States, even if violated abroad. For examples, see the Department of Justice website and our website on crimes against minors abroad .

Arrest Notification: If you are arrested or detained, ask police or prison officials to notify the U.S. Embassy immediately. See our webpage for further information.

Customs: Mongolian customs authorities strictly enforce laws regulating the import and export of firearms, ammunition, precious metals, antiquities and drugs. Importation of firearms or ammunition requires prior government approval. All precious metals should be declared on arrival. Exporting antiquities requires a special customs clearance certificate issued by an authorized antique dealer at the time of purchase. Importing medicines is not allowed. Medicines for personal use must have doctor’s prescription. Vitamins are limited only for personal use. Quantity of more than 2 packages will result in taxation. For additional information, contact the Embassy of Mongolia .

Faith-Based Travelers: See our following webpages for details:

  • Faith-Based Travel Information
  • International Religious Freedom Report – see country reports
  • Human Rights Report – see country reports
  • Hajj Fact Sheet for Travelers
  • Best Practices for Volunteering Abroad

LGBTI Travelers: Mongolia’s criminal code prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, nationality, language, race, age, gender, social status, professional position, religion, education, or medical status. There are no laws or legal provisions that criminalize being LGBTI or that specifically target the LGBTI community. However, NGOs continue to report that LGBTI individuals face violence and discrimination both in public and at home based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. There were also reports that LGBTI persons face greater discrimination and fear in rural areas than in Ulaanbaatar. The Government of Mongolia does not recognize same-sex spouses for visa and residency purposes.

See our LGBTI Travel Information and section 6 of our Human Rights report for further details.

Travelers Who Require Accessibility Assistance: Major streets in Ulaanbaatar feature textured sidewalks to aid visually impaired pedestrians, but numerous obstacles prevent persons with disabilities from moving freely. Government buildings and public transportation remain largely inaccessible to persons with disabilities. Mongolian elevators are often too small to accommodate a standard-sized wheelchair. Service animals are rare and are often barred from entering public buildings.

Students: See our Students Abroad page and FBI travel tips .

Women Travelers: Domestic violence and sexual assault are serious problems in Mongolia. See the Safety & Security section above, as well as our travel tips for Women Travelers .

With few exceptions, Mongolian hospitals do not meet Western standards. Although most doctors and emergency responders are dedicated professionals, their training and equipment are sub-standard. Most modern medical facilities are in Ulaanbaatar, though some public and private hospitals in larger provincial cities offer medical services on par with those in the capital. Medical services may be completely unavailable in remote areas. Mongolia does not have helicopter medical evacuation and those who require medical assistance in remote areas must drive to the nearest major town. Medical evacuation to Ulaanbaatar is conducted by commercial air carriers. Some pharmacies in Ulaanbaatar carry European or U.S. pharmaceuticals, but quantity and variety is limited. Most pharmaceuticals are made in China or Russia, and lack English labels. See our list of medical facilities in Ulaanbaatar .

Air Pollution: Due to the pervasiveness of coal-burning for domestic heating, Ulaanbaatar and most other Mongolian cities suffer severe air pollution during winter. The U.S. Embassy’s air quality monitor registers Air Quality Indices (AQIs) in excess of 300 most days from December through February. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency describes AQIs above 300 as “hazardous.” Air pollution can cause both short- and long-term health effects and poses an especially high risk to children, pregnant women, the elderly, outdoor enthusiasts, and people with heart or lung disease. Travelers planning to visit Ulaanbaatar during winter should consult a medical professional and should, at the very least, consider carrying an N95 mask to help filter out harmful particulates. For reliable and timely air pollution readings, check the U.S. Embassy’s live air quality monitor .

Water Quality: The quality of drinking water varies throughout Mongolia and it is likely not up to U.S. standards for potability. Most Mongolians do not drink tap water and instead prefer to consume bottled water for their domestic use.

Medical Insurance: Make sure your health insurance plan provides coverage overseas. Most care providers overseas only accept cash payments. See our webpage for more information on insurance coverage.

We strongly recommend supplemental insurance to cover medical evacuation. The U.S. Embassy does not provide medical evacuation, but will contact the insurance company on your behalf to arrange medical evacuation if necessary.

If traveling with prescription medication, check with the Mongolian Embassy to ensure the medication is legal in Mongolia. Always carry your prescription medication in original packaging with your doctor’s prescription.

The following diseases are prevalent:

  • Meningococcal meningitis
  • Tuberculosis

Vaccinations: Be up-to-date on all vaccinations recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Further health information:

  • World Health Organization
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Travel and Transportation

Road Conditions and Safety:

  • Operating a vehicle outside of Ulaanbaatar is unsafe , particularly after dark. Outside of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia has few paved roads and even fewer street lights. Most roads have only two lanes and no shoulders and most sealed roads need resurfacing. Trucks commonly carry overloaded cargo. Livestock crossing roads, even high traffic ones, is common. Pedestrians also cross all types of roads at undesignated locations. Passing is difficult and dangerous due to the narrow, highly-trafficked nature of the roads.

Mongolian motorists are sometimes aggressive, commonly cutting each other off, performing illegal turns, driving through red lights, and/or suddenly stopping in the middle of the road. Moreover, driving while intoxicated is common. Although Mongolia is a right-hand traffic country, more than half of all vehicles have the steering wheel on the right-hand side. Most motorcycle and moped drivers have limited experience sharing the road. Motorists rarely respect pedestrian right-of-way, even in crosswalks.

  • Driving off-road in Mongolia can be dangerous, especially without a knowledgeable Mongolian guide. Those contemplating off-road driving in Mongolia should bring standard vehicle maintenance equipment, a good GPS unit, and a reliable satellite phone. Exercise particular caution when driving off-road during winter. Mongolia’s National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) regularly assists stuck vehicles. However, off-road rescue can take days given the remoteness and rough terrain, and few NEMA rescue crews speak English. Foreign motorists may face life-threatening situations after becoming stranded in remote locations without sufficient sources of food, water, and heat.

Traffic Laws:

  • To help reduce traffic and air pollution, police actively restrict certain license plate numbers from driving into downtown Ulaanbaatar on certain days of the week, usually alternating odd/even numbers.
  • All foreign residents must carry a Mongolian driving permit. It is not legal to drive in Mongolia with a U.S. driver’s license. U.S. citizen tourists may legally drive in Mongolia for up to six months with a valid international driver’s license, but must have a Mongolian license thereafter. Automobile insurance is mandatory. For information concerning Mongolian driver’s licenses, vehicle inspection, road taxes, and vehicle insurance, contact the Embassy of Mongolia in Washington, DC.
  • If you are involved in a collision, never move your vehicle until after the police arrive to assess the scene--even if your vehicle is blocking traffic. Moving your vehicle will incur a fine. Be prepared to wait because it can take hours before police arrive at the scene of the collision.

Public Transportation:

Ulaanbaatar has a fairly reliable bus system. Bus maps are not posted in English and buses can become extremely crowded--be alert against pickpocketing. Unofficial, unregistered, un-metered taxis are rampant in Ulaanbaatar, however registered taxis are also available. Registered taxis may refuse service during rush hour, however.

The safety and maintenance standards of rental car companies vary. Local tour companies can provide cars with drivers, but the drivers’ experience, knowledge, and English-speaking abilities will vary.

For more information, please visit our Road Safety page.

Aviation Safety Oversight:  As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Mongolia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the government of Mongolia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page .

For additional travel information

  • Enroll in the  Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP)  to receive security messages and make it easier to locate you in an emergency.
  • Call us in Washington, D.C. at 1-888-407-4747 (toll-free in the United States and Canada) or 1-202-501-4444 (from all other countries) from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
  • See the  State Department’s travel website  for the  Worldwide Caution  and  Travel Advisories .
  • Follow us on  Twitter  and  Facebook .
  • See  traveling safely abroad  for useful travel tips.

For additional IPCA-related information, please see the  International Child Abduction Prevention and Return Act ( ICAPRA )  report.

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The flight time from Mongolia to Germany is:

8 hours, 42 minutes.

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Flight map from Mongolia to Germany

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Flying time from Mongolia to Germany

The total flight duration from Mongolia to Germany is 8 hours, 42 minutes .

This assumes an average flight speed for a commercial airliner of 500 mph, which is equivalent to 805 km/h or 434 knots. It also adds an extra 30 minutes for take-off and landing. Your exact time may vary depending on wind speeds.

If you're planning a trip, remember to add more time for the plane to taxi between the gate and the airport runway. This measurement is only for the actual flying time. You should also factor in airport wait times and possible equipment or weather delays. If you're trying to figure out what time you'll arrive at the destination, you may want to see if there's a time difference between Mongolia and Germany .

The calculation of flight time is based on the straight line distance from Mongolia to Germany ("as the crow flies"), which is about 4,096 miles or 6 593 kilometers .

Your trip begins in Mongolia. It ends in Germany.

Your flight direction from Mongolia to Germany is Northwest (-47 degrees from North).

The flight time calculator measures the average flight duration between points. It uses the great circle formula to compute the travel mileage.

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Travelmath provides an online flight time calculator for all types of travel routes. You can enter airports, cities, states, countries, or zip codes to find the flying time between any two points. The database uses the great circle distance and the average airspeed of a commercial airliner to figure out how long a typical flight would take. Find your travel time to estimate the length of a flight between airports, or ask how long it takes to fly from one city to another.

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Travel to Mongolia from German

Mongolia is one of the world’s last truly nomadic cultures. For millennia, pastoral herders have lived on almost every corner of Mongolian, moving with their livestock according to the seasons. They still live in traditional felt Ger tents, subsisting on the meat and milk of their animals, and living “as free as the country is wide. In today’s fast changing world, Mongolia is considered as one of the few exotic destinations and a place designed for nature and culture lovers that can offer beautiful unspoiled nature, world’s last truly nomadic culture and unrivalled hospitality which have been kept for centuries.

By AIR : Mongolia is a landlocked country that can be reached either by air or by land. Chinggis Khaan International Airport (ULN) is the major international airport that is located in 15 kilometers southwest of the capital city, Ulaanbaatar.

There are direct flights from the Berlin or Frankfurt to Ulaanbaatar by MIAT Mongolian Airline

By TRAIN : The legendary Trans-Siberian Railway which is the longest (7925 km) continuous rail line on earth links Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia with Irkutsk and Moscow, Russia and Beijing, China. The journey from Moscow to Ulaanbaatar takes about 5 days, from Irkutsk (Baikal Lake) 24 hours and from Beijing to Ulaanbaatar takes about 28 hours. From the Mongolian steppes to Lake Baikal’s remote shores, and to the Great Wall of China, you can start your adventure at any of these three completely different cultures. More information for this train: click here!

How about Mongolia visa?

Don’t need Mongolia visa for German passport holders within 30 days!

Mongolia - Customs Regulations

Foreign currencies may be introduced indefinitely, but must be declared if more than EUR 4500 or $ 5000. The export is possible up to the amount of the declared amount. The import and export of local currency is prohibited.

When leaving the country, people often and strictly search for antiques, valuable minerals, gerontological finds, metals and hunting trophies. Hunters may import and export their personal hunting weapons including ammunition.

Read more: Customs Regulations & Passenger Clearance 

Mongolia weather - best times to visit mongolia.

Mongolia is known to the world as country of “Blue Sky of 4 Seasons “. In Mongolia, there are 257 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies. The best time to visit Mongolia is during the Mongolian summer, from the 1st week of June till 1st week of September.

More Information: Click here!

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17 things to know before traveling to Mongolia

Tom O'Malley

Aug 20, 2023 • 7 min read

travel to germany from mongolia

Use these tips on health, safety and etiquette to plan your trip to Mongolia © Henn Photography / Getty Images

A land defined by boundless steppes, blue skies and roving nomads, Mongolia is perfectly set up for adventure and cultural immersion. Memorable experiences are a given, but travel in the world’s least-densely-populated country comes with its own challenges, so it pays to level-up on your Mongolia knowledge before you come.

On my own Mongolia adventures, I’ve wild-camped in a lightning storm; got queasy on fermented horse milk; broken down multiple times on epic drives ; had my pocket picked; crashed a Kazakh wedding; been thrown from two horses; and – perhaps my biggest faux pas – tried to cross part of the Gobi desert in a Toyota Prius. (Spoiler: I got stuck!)

Experience is the mother of wisdom, so here are some tips to help you make fewer mistakes on your own trip. However you choose to explore this fascinating country, remember that Mongolians are famously hospitable and predisposed to help strangers in need – even if things do go wrong, someone will eventually put you back on the right track.

Camels stand between a flowing river and a series of snow-covered mountain peaks

1. Organize your tour well before you travel

Mongolia’s travel season is fleeting, stretching from late May to late August, so the best drivers, guides and vehicles are soon snaffled up. In the past, it was possible to rock up to Ulaanbaatar in summer and ask around at guesthouses to find space on a tour, but with the suspension of the Trans-Mongolian Railway, fewer travelers are passing through. Booking tours ahead is the way to go. 

2. Don’t be too ambitious with your Mongolia itinerary

A common mistake is to try to see too much of Mongolia in one go, which can turn your trip into a wearisome, bone-rattling driving safari. It’s better to focus on just one area of the country, or schedule a stop of at least two nights in each destination so you can slow down and enjoy the majesty and serenity of the Mongolian landscape.

3. Book domestic travel tickets through local Mongolian agencies

Schedules for domestic flights and rail travel often change at the last minute. If you book through a local travel agent in Mongolia, they’ll be able to sort you out if your flight is canceled or delayed. If you miss a connection or are running late, a good tour operator might even be able to hold the plane for you for an hour or so.

A woman stands behind a fully packed 4WD prepping food in a meadow

4. If you plan to drive yourself, avoid July and August

The summer travel season from July to August coincides with the time when the grassy tracks of the steppe become waterlogged and the risk of getting stuck rises exponentially. If you intend to drive yourself, it’s better to come in the shoulder season in June or September for firmer ground. If you come at the height of summer, stick to the paved roads that fan outwards from the capital, or hire a car and a local driver who knows the local driving conditions.

5. Download podcasts and audiobooks for those long road trips

Mongolia is three times the size of France , and most roads are bumpy tracks, which translates to low average speeds even in a modern 4WD. Expect to spend hours bouncing along through vast, unchanging landscapes – beautiful but somewhat repetitive. This terrain is crying out for a good soundtrack; preload your audio player with good tunes or a selection of audiobooks or podcasts to help the miles pass. 

6. Bring sanitary supplies and medication

While you can pick up most health essentials in the capital, once you’re out on the steppe you’ll find that personal sanitary supplies and medication are much harder to find. Make space in your pack and come prepared with everything you need.

7. Spice up your mutton with condiments

Ulaanbaatar has a buzzing dining scene, but out in the wilds, you’ll subsist mostly on mutton dumplings (buuz) , fried mutton pancakes (khuushuur) , mutton with pasta chunks (tsuivan) , or just plain boiled mutton (makh) . On a long expedition this can get boring, so remember to pack a bottle of sriracha, horseradish, gochujang, piri-piri sauce, or any other condiment that you like to use to zhush up your food.

8. Boil or purify water from streams and lakes

Rural Mongolia may look pristine, but even crystal clear water can contain microbes, contaminants or impurities. Boiling water for at least one minute can kill most harmful microorganisms, or you can use water purification tablets or a portable filtration system to cut down on energy use.

9. Pack camping gear to save money (and if heading out west)

In Mongolia’s most popular destinations, you can stay overnight in fixed ger (yurt) camps set up for tourists, but in remote western areas such as Bayan-Ölgii province, it’s a good idea to carry your own tent and camping gear, as ger camps are few and far between. Ulaanbaatar is full of shops selling outdoor equipment, in case you didn’t bring your own gear from home. 

10. Bring gifts when visiting nomad families

It’s customary to bring something for your hosts when staying with local people in Mongolia. Popular gifts include food, candies, cigarettes and bottles of alcohol. Taking along souvenirs or photographs from your own country is another great way to foster cultural exchange.

11. Climb a hill to get a mobile phone signal

In recent years, cell phone coverage in Mongolia has become much more widespread, with fewer dead zones, though there are still some off-grid spots. If you’re in the countryside and don’t have a signal, usually all you need to do is climb the nearest hill and you’ll be back online.

12. Think twice about riding that horse

Falling off a horse is one of the most common accidents to befall foreigners in Mongolia. If you are keen to get in the saddle, make sure your travel insurance covers it, and consider getting some practice before you leave home. Be extra careful in remote areas such as the Gobi , as horses tend to be more skittish, often a result of mixing different herds to make up the numbers for the tourist season.

People step inside the doorway of a large round tent with a central opening and many colorful rugs adorning walls and floor

13. Observe ger (yurt) etiquette

There are special rules for staying in Mongolia’s most famous form of accommodation. Inside a ger , it’s polite to wait until you’re seated and have been served tea before engaging in conversation with your hosts. It’s also disrespectful to throw trash into the central stove; instead, place it in front and your host will dispose of it. 

14. Be vigilant when walking around central Ulaanbaatar

While Mongolia is generally a safe place to travel, tourists have been known to get robbed in Ulaanbaatar. Back in 2012, I had my wallet picked from my back pocket outside the Ulaanbaatar Department Store – a rookie mistake! Also take extra care when crossing the street – Ulaanbaatar is choked with cars and pedestrians get no special treatment from motorists.

15. Use official taxis after dark

In Ulaanbaatar there are two types of taxis – official taxis and the unofficial kind, essentially regular cars prowling the streets for fares. While unlicensed cabs are generally safe by day, you should stick to official taxis at night. Two useful taxi apps are UBCab and ABA taxi Mongolia , each with their own registered drivers.

16. Use what3words to find places and points of interest

Mongolia has adopted the popular what3words navigation system, where locations are mapped using unique combinations of three words. This makes it easier to locate sites and attractions in a country with few named roads and landmarks. The current edition of the Lonely Planet Mongolia guidebook lists what3words locations next to every point of interest.

17. Get a GPS tracker device

The vehicle version of the hikers’ GPS device, a GPS tracker will provide an extra level of safety when adventuring into the great Mongolian emptiness. If you drive with a tracker, any tour company or support office in Ulaanbaatar can locate your whereabouts if you get lost or your vehicle runs into difficulties. 

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Visit Mongolia

The Ultimate Mongolia Travel Guide 2024

From the best time of year to visit to how to get a SIM card and where to register with immigration , these are the important things to know as you plan your trip to Mongolia.

  • April 9, 2020
  • Updated: January 24, 2024

Breanna Wilson Mongolia Travel Expert

The Best Restaurants in Ulaanbaatar

Traditional Mongolian Deel

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Table of contents.

When I say I love living in Mongolia, I mean it with every part of my heart and soul. It was after coming here in 2018 as a tourist to join a Mongolia tour and experience the local culture that I remember thinking, this place can’t be real.

It turned out to be the best way to experience Mongolia I could have asked for. That short trip made me realize the Mongolian steppe is one of the last truly untouched places in the world for nature lovers and true adventure seekers.

Nomadic families really did still live of the land, and their herds, the same way they have for thousands of years. Talk about sustainable.

In fact, 25% of the Mongolian population still lives this way. That’s a huge percentage in a country of just over 3.2 million.

However, it wasn’t just the Mongolian countryside that I fell in love with. After coming back and living a summer in Ulaanbaatar (also written as Ulan Bator), Mongolia’s capital city, I knew this was the country, and the place for me.

It’s by no means easy living here. This is not the United States, where everything runs smoothly. Language barriers are a thing, credit cards always have issues (especially Mastercard), and you really need to get used to Mongolian time. Whether you want to or not.

In the end, I’ve learned it’s better not to resist this style of living and just go with the flow. It’s probably the only reason I’ve made it this long here. Living here has taught me a lot about patience, compassion, and myself. Things living in Los Angeles, New York, and growing up in Pittsburgh couldn’t do in 32 years.

Because, when it comes down to it, Mongolia is a tough place to be as a foreigner among the local people. When I moved here, there was no information on how to navigate the the city, let alone rural Mongolia. I’m talking, nothing! I had to become my own local guide.

Not just for people crazy enough to move here like me, but for travelers, too. The type of people willing to travel more than 24 hours to a place where they usually have no idea about the chaos they are about to encounter. The kind of people who book a tour but the tour company could be real and you could have the adventure of the lifetime, or it could be a complete scam. The people who just go for it with fearlessness without ever looking back. Those are my people. You are my people.

So, I hope this Mongolia travel guide, along with the other guides on this Mongolia travel blog give you the insight and information that wasn’t available to me when I first came here. That these articles will help you navigate Ulaanbaatar like a local and Mongolia like a travel pro.

As always, if you need help planning an itinerary or have more specific travel questions, you can always book a 30-minute travel consultation with me. There’s nothing I love more than talking about Mongolia and getting people excited about visiting.

When is the Best Time of Year to Visit Mongolia?

Summer is the best time of year to visit Mongolia and is considered peak season. June, July, and August are beautiful months with a great deal of things to see and experience. This is when most tourists visit Mongolia, so you can expect peak rates, sometimes crowded natural landmarks and museums, and full flights.

The average summer temperature in Mongolia is between 25° and 32° C, with cold nights. You can comfortably wear t-shirts during the day and a light jacket when it gets dark. Dust storms are common in the summer season, especially when you’re on the wide-open plains.

Keep in mind that if you visit areas in the north or west, at higher elevations, temperatures will be lower than this. If you visit places in the south, particularly the Gobi Desert, temperatures will be much higher. Temperatures in the Gobi Desert average 40° C, and higher, in June, July, and August.

If you plan to visit Mongolia in the summer, especially in July, book your tours, hotels, and flights no later than March. July is the busiest month for tourism in Mongolia thanks to the Naadam festival. Hotel rates in Ulaanbaatar are even known to double in price between July 10 and 12, when the Opening Ceremony takes place in the city.

Naadam is the biggest and most important festival of the year and visiting Mongolia during Naadam gives you the best of Mongolia, and Mongolian culture, in just a few short days. The festival always takes place in July, with the National Opening Ceremony always being held in Ulaanbaatar on July 11. Thus, the high hotel rates in the city.

It’s during Naadam when you can watch wrestling, horse racing, and archery competitions big and small across the country.

Here are some other great things to see and experience when visiting Mongolia in June, July, and August:

  • Annual Naadam Festival
  • PlayTime Music Festival
  • Spirit of Gobi Music Festival
  • Tenger World Shaman Festival
  • Mongol Derby
  • Monkey Run Mongolia
  • Free Daily Cultural Shows in Ulaanbaatar
  • Polo Matches at the Genghis Khan Retreat and Polo Club

Mongolia Travel Guide Blog

What to Expect When You Visit Mongolia in Fall, Winter, or Spring

While summer is the most popular, and best time to visit Mongolia for many reasons, fall, winter, and spring shouldn’t be immediately ruled out. Here are a few reasons why.

Personally, fall is my favorite time to be in Mongolia .

Tourism starts to die down at the end of August as school starts and the weather starts to get a bit chillier and days shorter. This is the time when most nomadic families begin to prepare for the cold winter months ahead, which makes it an especially interesting time to visit. You can help families move to their winter camps, either by truck, camel, or yak, and help tear down and build their gers (homes) with them. It’s a special time to bond with families and feel like you’re being useful. The worst is when you go somewhere and feel like they’re just putting on a “show” for tourism reasons. This isn’t that. I can promise.

September is also the time when the landscape turns a beautiful golden hue. Trees turn bright shades of yellow, orange, and red, and snow starts to cover the mountain tops.

Because of all these things, traditional ger camps begin closing up for the season at this time. This is usually to traveler’s benefits because it means you can find great deals on nightly rates before they do.

Then, when October hits, it’s time for the famous Golden Eagle Festival .

The festival is extremely popular with tourists, so be sure to make your arrangements if you want to attend as far in advance as possible. I would recommend making your arrangements before June. Especially since securing flights from Ulaanbaatar to Ulgii can be tricky and confusing. For this I also recommend hiring a local tour company to make all your arrangements.

The annual Golden Eagle Festival is always held the first weekend in October .

Here are some other great things to see and experience when visiting Mongolia in September, October, and November:

  • Sagsai Eagle Festival
  • Golden Eagle Festival
  • Ulaanbaatar Jazz Week

Don’t let the idea winter in Mongolia intimidate you. Yes, temperatures do reach -30° C. And yes, Ulaanbaatar is officially the coldest capital city in the world . But it’s because of these things Ulaanbaatar, and Mongolia, are something special to see and experience during December, January, and February.

While temperatures do drop to around -30° C, you can still do things like visit and spend the night in a yurt with a nomadic family out in Gorkhi-Terelj National Park. Out there, you can go horseback riding on Mongolia’s famously wild horses, and even dog sledding through the winter wonderland that has become the snow-covered countryside.

Or, better yet, head down to the Gobi Desert, one of the only deserts in the world where snow can lay across the dunes covering them in a sea of white. This is the perfect time to experience the natural beauty of the Mongolian desert, but with fewer crowds.

Alternatively, Tsagaan Sar , or Mongolian Lunar New Year, happens in February and is a unique way to experience a Mongolia relatively free of other tourists.

The holiday marks the first day of spring and a time when Mongolians take the time to visit each of the elders in their family, bringing gifts and sharing a meal. This is a special time for Mongolians to celebrate with family and look forward to new beginnings.

Here are some other great things to see and experience when visiting Mongolia in December, January, and February:

  • Ulaanbaatar’s Christmas Markets
  • New Year’s Eve Celebrations
  • Tsagaan Sar (Lunar New Year)
  • See the Gobi Desert Covered in Snow
  • Dog sledding on Lake Khusvgul
  • Ice Fishing

Winter in Mongolia Things to Do

While most people think of spring as a time when temperatures start to warm up, flowers begin to bloom, and life returns to nature, spring in Mongolia isn’t quite that. In fact, spring is still uncomfortably cold and you should probably just think of spring in Mongolia as winter-lite.

Blizzards can still occur in May, which locals refer to as dzud (or zud, a natural phenomenon that kills off a large portion of herds from starvation since they aren’t able to graze), and it’s still a harsh time in the country as locals start to run out of winter rations and look forward to warmer summer months.

However, as is usually the case in Mongolia, the brave are rewarded with two very cool festivals that make a trip to Mongolia in the spring worth it.

The annual Camel Festival is held each March in the Gobi Desert.

During the festival, there are camel polo matches, camel races, and friendly competitions among the local camel breeders. Mongolia is one of the few places in the world where you find Bactrian (two-hump) camels, and the Gobi Desert one of the only deserts in the world where snow accumulates. Making a trip down to the desert during this time is actually quite a magical experience.

Also in March, the annual Ice Festival is held on Lake Khuvsgul, the world’s second-largest freshwater lake. The lake is completely frozen over and is strong enough to drive cars over and host an entire festival on.

And yes, this region bordering Siberia will be every bit as cold as you’d expect it would be, so don’t come unprepared. A fur-lined winter deel (traditional Mongolian robe) probably wouldn’t be a bad investment. You can have one custom-made in Ulaanbaatar as soon as you land.

Here are some other great things to see and experience when visiting Mongolia in March, April, and May:

  • Camel Festival
  • Ice Festival
  • Ulaanbaatar Eagle Festival

Finding a Cheap Flight to Mongolia

Check the cheapest rates to Ulaanbaatar on below.

The best direct flights to Mongolia are on the following airlines:

  • Mongolian National Airline (MIAT)
  • Turkish Airlines

If you’re traveling from the U.S., your two best options are via Istanbul on Turkish Airlines or via Seoul on Korean Air. I usually recommend traveling via Istanbul if you’re departing from the east coast and via Seoul if you’re departing from the west coast.

Turkish Airlines is my personal preference and I’ve never had an issue with them. I particularly like Turkish Airlines right now because they have a layover program that includes a  free 4-star hotel in Istanbul . Besides helping break up your jetlag, it’s also an excuse to cross another country off your list. Two birds, one stone!

From Europe, flying via Frankfurt on MIAT, Mongolia’s national airline, is another good option. As an airline, MIAT is safe, but they don’t always have the best track record for being on time, having a smooth check-in process, and cancellations do happen with them more often than other airlines. I have flown MIAT, but they usually aren’t my first choice.

Internal domestic flights can be booked through MIAT, Aero Mongolia, or Hunnu Air. Domestic roundtrip flights are not cheap, usually costing at least a few hundred U.S. dollars. It’s also extremely confusing to book these flights on your own, especially without a local Mongolian bank account. If you plan to book a domestic flight in Mongolia, I recommend getting a local tour guide or agency to help you through the process.

Once you land in Ulaanbaatar at Chinggis Khaan International Airport, here are the best ways to  get from the airport into the city center .

Taking the Trans-Siberian Railway

Taking the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Beijing is one of the most iconic train journeys in the world. It’s high on my list of things to do, and I’m hoping to do it sooner rather than later.

Conveniently, the Trans-Siberian Railway stops in Ulaanbaatar, giving travelers an excuse to explore the city and surrounding countryside for a few days. The train station is located in the heart of Ulaanbaatar and most hostels and guesthouses offer free transfers from the train station.

Tips for Taking Taxis, Public Transportation, and Hiring a Driving

When it comes to hailing a taxi, finding the bus schedule, or hiring a private driver, there are a few things to know. Use these travel tips for getting around Mongolia cost-efficiently and with less hassle than if you were to have to figure it out on your own.

Finding a Taxi in Ulaanbaatar

You can hail a taxi in Ulaanbaatar simply putting out your hand to your side, signaling you’re looking for a ride.

These are not official taxis, but they are the most common way to get around the city. It’s how I get around almost every day. It’s safe and reliable, but you do need to explain where you’re going. I usually tell the driver a major landmark that’s close enough to where I’m going or I show them on Google Maps. On occasion, the driver will ask for your destination before allowing you in their car, just in case they aren’t going that way. Both male and female drivers stop and do this, sometimes with kids and other family members in the car. It’s all normal here.

When it comes time to pay your driver, expect to pay 1,500 MNT per kilometer . It’s helpful to have small bills and exact change, most drivers don’t carry cash.

If the thought of getting into a strange Mongolian’s car freaks you out, apps like UBCab are the Mongolian equivalent of Uber, which don’t exist in Mongolia. You’ll need a local Mongolian number to register within the app and begin requesting rides. The app is okay from a user perspective and the driver usually calls when they’re on their way to your pickup location.

You’ll still need cash if using UBCab, the app doesn’t accept credit cards. At the end of the ride you’ll see your total in the app, which also helps you get a gauge on the average taxi price to get around the city.

Scooters and Bikes

Ulaanbaatar is now home to both scooter and bike sharing apps.

Jet scooters are hard to miss scattered around town. To use one, download the Jet app ( Apple , Android ), scan the scooter’s QR code, and then pay by the minute. You can use the app to find a nearby scooter and while they are a convenient way to beat rush hour traffic, Ulaanbaatar’s sidewalks and drivers don’t make it the safest option. Ride with caution!

Hi Sainuu ( Apple ,  Android ) is the bikesharing app that’s taken over the city. It works much the same way as Jet and, again, should be used with caution.

Public Transportation in Ulaanbaatar

Buses within Ulaanbaatar are often crowded, especially around rush hour thanks to a lack of routes and other public transportation options. Ulaanbaatar does not have a subway system.

Cash is not accepted once you step on the bus so you’ll need a refillable U Money Smart Card (3,600 MNT to purchase) to take the bus. The price per ride is 500 MNT. You can purchase and refill a U Money Smart Card at bus kiosks around town or inside CU convenience stores. Note that routes and bus numbers will appear in Cyrillic.

You can find information on bus stops, waiting time, routes, and U Money kiosks on the UB Smart Bus app ( Apple ,  Android ).

Additionally, it’s possible to take buses from Ulaanbaatar to different cities throughout the country. Bus tickets and schedules are found at the Dragon Center Bus Station, on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar. You can now  purchase bus tickets to destinations outside of Ulaanbaatar online , but be warned the system doesn’t always work as promised. I recommend going to the bus station a day before you plan to depart Ulaanbaatar to get the most up-to-date schedule and purchase your ticket in-person then.

A bus ride to Moron, for example, will be relatively inexpensive, costing 32,000 MNT for the 14-hour ride.

Renting a Car in Ulaanbaatar

Renting a car in Mongolia  these days isn’t as cheap as it used to be. In fact, it’s downright expensive. With only two major rental companies to choose from, Avis and Sixt, there’s a monopoly on the car rental market. When you rent from either company, expect to pay a deposit on the rental around $2,000 USD, not including any of your rental costs, which will also need paid up front. If there’s no damage done to the car, you’ll get the deposit money back after returning the rental at the end of your trip.

One hack to that is renting a car through a company like  Follow the Tracks . The company offers self-driving tours of Mongolia and these cars are equipped with rooftop tents and they even give you a route to follow.

Another reason I really like Follow the Tracks is because it can be very difficult to navigate Mongolia on your own. Once you leave the city the roads conditions start to worsen, and fast.

Unless you’re a driver who’s really comfortable driving off-roading, and in extreme conditions, I don’t recommend renting a car in Mongolia.

Instead, hire a driver.

Hiring a Driver in Mongolia

There are a few benefits to hiring a driver in Mongolia.

First, like I mentioned above, unless you are really comfortable driving off-road, driving in Mongolia is not easy.

Second, you can’t beat the cost. The cost per day to hire a driver with a car in Mongolia is currently 200,000 MNT per day. You are responsible for the driver’s meals, making sure they have a place to sleep, and you’ll pay for your own gas along the way. Your gas costs will depend on your route, and the type of car you’re in, but expect to fill up at least three to four times during your trip at 300,000 to 400,000 MNT per tank.

Your driver will need to be paid in cash at the end of your trip. Gas can usually be paid for by credit card at gas stations like Petrovis, but you should also carry emergency cash on you for at least two tanks of gas, just in case.

I recommend hiring a driver with either a Toyota Land Cruiser 200, Toyota Delica, or Russian UAZ furgon. These will be the most reliable cars that will get you across the steppe. UAZ furgons are the least comfortable of the three options, and usually also the cheapest.

Drivers are always flexible, easy going, and ready to fix their own car when something goes wrong. Something I can almost guarantee will happen. Usually drivers don’t speak English, but you’ll quickly learn the key words you need to get through your journey. Never underestimate the power of sign language and Google Translate. Take the time to get to know your driver, they’re funny characters that start to become like family in no time.

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Plugs and Voltage

Sockets in Mongolia work with both U.S. (type B plugs with two flat prongs and a grounding pin) and European plugs (type C plugs with two round pins). Each socket has one type of each plug.

So, if you’re coming from the U.S., your device will work in most wall sockets in Mongolia. However, it is important to note that there will be a voltage difference. In Mongolia the sockets are 230 volts, compared to the typical 120 volt sockets we use in the U.S.

Most computer chargers, phone chargers, and other electronics have power converters built into the device to account for these types of voltage differences.

For example, I use my U.S. computer charger without any issue. I plug it right into the socket in my apartment, in coffee shops, in hotels – everywhere – and I’ve never had an issue. The same goes with my phone charger, camera battery charger, drone charger, hair straightener, and just about any other electronic you can think of.

If you’d like to bring a wall charger that will allow you to charge via USB-A and USB-C, I recommend this travel adapter . This two pack also gives you the most charging power out of the shortest available charging time.

When packing for Mongolia, be sure to bring travel adapters, power banks, extra C charging cables, and a solar powered charger, if you have one. Electricity is not reliable or regularly available once you leave Ulaanbaatar, so you need to be prepared if you plan to travel around the country for several days. Especially if you plan to do a homestay or spend time in the more remote corners of the country.

As I mentioned above, be aware that the voltage is much higher in Mongolia than it is in the U.S. (230 V vs 120 V). If you plan to plug directly into the wall socket make sure your device has a built-in power converter, or you have a power adapter that allows for dual voltage.

Getting a SIM Card

The best place to get a physical SIM card in Ulaanbaatar is at the State Department Store on the 5th floor. There you’ll find Unitel , MobiCom , Skytel , and gmobile kiosks next to each other. Since they are all located next to each other, it’s easy to browse and compare each company’s service plans and choose the right one for your trip.

Most locals use Unitel, myself included, which offers some of the best service coverage across the country.

Getting a SIM card is quick and easy, but you will need to bring your passport with you to get one issued. You can use a credit card or cash to purchase your car and plan, which should cost less than 40,000 tugrik all together.

If you have an iPhone 15 that doesn’t have a SIM card holder , you can ask for your SIM to be converted to an eSIM . From experience, I know that Unitel offers eSIM cards .

eSIMS are also available in Mongolia and can be purchased through apps like Airalo. Purchasing an eSIM this way is more expensive ($35 USD compared to $10 USD), but it is more convenient and works just as well as using a physical SIM. If you’re short on time and won’t have time to make it to the State Department Store before leaving the city, this is a great option.

Before you purchase a SIM card of any kind, be sure to ask yourself if you really need or want one. Service in the countryside is hit and miss, so even if you purchase a SIM you may not have any data or service.

Only purchase one if it’s absolutely necessary for you to stay connected. Otherwise, enjoy being disconnected, that’s one of the best things about traveling in Mongolia.

If you do decide to purchase a SIM, the two most reliable service providers in Mongolia are MobiCom and Unitel. Tourist plans start as low as 20,000 tugrik and include international call rates, SMS messaging, and different levels of data. No service provider will be able to offer unlimited data, we just don’t have that in Mongolia yet.

Exchanging Cash in Ulaanbaatar

The local currency in Mongolia is Tugriks , also spelled togrog or used as the abbreviation MNT.

As of December 2023, one USD = about 3,455 Tugrik .

You will always need to have cash on hand in Mongolia. Even in Ulaanbaatar where credit cards are becoming more widely accepted. But, you can’t always rely on them to work. It’s especially known that there are issues with Mastercard credit cards and American Express. If you have a Visa credit card, that is your best option for using around the city.

Cash will always be needed if you hail a taxi off the street, and be sure to carry smaller bills on you at all times. Expecting exact change isn’t always possible. I recommend carrying at least ten 1,000 MNT bills, four 5,000 MNT bills, and two 10,000 MNT bills with you at all times. This is still a country where cash is king.

The easiest way to exchange USD or Euros for Tugriks is at one of the currency exchange offices off of Sambuu Street, near the  Holiday Inn , where this Google Maps pin is.

There is also a cash exchange stand in the State Department Store, on the third floor, near the kitchen electronics.

ATM’s are more available than cash exchanges in the city, so you can pull out money that way as well. ATM’s typically have a withdraw limit of 500,000 MNT, 800,000 MNT at very select terminals.

Prepare to have what will seem like a large amount of cash on you and note that Mongolia does not use coins.

While most tour operators, guides and private drivers are happy to accept cash in USD or Euros, taxi drivers and local businesses will only accept MNT.

Take my advice and take care of this before you leave Ulaanbaatar for the countryside. Finding working ATMs and currency exchange counters isn’t so easy in the country’s small towns and remote areas.

Visa-Free Countries and How to Get an E-Visa

Citizens from more than 60 countries, including the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland can enter Mongolia without needing a visa.

U.S. citizens do not need a visa to enter Mongolia. If you are a U.S. passport holder, and you plan to stay more than 30 days, you will need to register with the immigration office within 7 days of arriving in the country. Then, you can stay up to 90 days without issue. If you fail to register with immigration, you’ll be fined a few hundred dollars at the airport when leaving the country.

Citizens of Canada, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Italy, France, Spain, Greece, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland can stay visa-free for up to 30 days .

Citizens from 98 countries, including India, China, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Armenia can now apply for an electronic visa before departing for Ulaanbaatar.

See the full list of  visa-free countries  here.

Registering with the Immigration Office

When I first started coming to Mongolia this process had to be done in person at the Immigration Office, which is nowhere near the center of town. Today the process is automated and takes only minutes to complete.

U.S. citizens who plan to stay in Mongolia for more than 30 days need to register with the Immigration Office within 48 hours of arrival.

This has nothing to do with being allowed to stay for up to 90 days visa free. This is absolutely mandatory. I can’t stress this enough. If you fail to register at the Immigration Office you will be stopped at passport control on your way out of the country and not allowed to board your flight until you pay the fine for violating this law. Even worse, you could be banned from entering the country ever again.

Luckily, you can now register with the Immigration Office online.

To register online with immigration you will need to do the following. You will need the information for the person responsible for your stay in the country, including their ID number, email, local phone number, and address . You should have this information before you begin filling out the form.

  • Go to
  • Click “Registration of a Foreign National”
  • Follow the steps on the form
  • Click submit and you’re all set. The form may not look like it’s been submitted, but it has.
  • You won’t receive a confirmation email so I recommend taking a picture of the screen or a screenshot in case there is an issue or dispute when you go to leave the country.

Language and Religion

Mongolian is the official language spoken in Mongolia. It’s written using the Cyrillic alphabet. Although it’s becoming more common to see it written using Latin letters.

Russian and English are the second and third most spoken languages by Mongolians. However, don’t expect most people in Ulaanbaatar to speak English. Most Mongolians don’t.

It will be more likely to find English-speakers in Ulaanbaatar. Once you leave the capital, don’t expect English to be a common language to use for communicating. (You can always use my Mongolian Language Cheat Sheet for help.)

Buddhism is the main “religion” practiced in Mongolia. About 80% of the population considers themselves Buddhist.

Mongolians also believe in respecting the earth and its inhabitants above all else. This is called Tengerism and it was primary religion in Mongolia centuries ago. Today Tengerism and  Shamanism  still play an important role in the core beliefs of most Mongolians, but they’ll still call themselves Buddhists.

While most of the country’s monasteries were destroyed during Soviet times, a handful can still be found across the country and are worth taking the time to seek out and visit.

Eating and Drinking in Mongolia

There are many amazing traditional Mongolian dishes to taste during your travels. From homemade buuz (dumplings) to tsuvian (friend noodles with dried meat and vegetables) and khuushuur (think: Mongolian hot pocket meets an empanada), you’ll have plenty of opportunities to taste them all. Especially if you’re planning to spend time with a nomadic family in their home.

There are a few important things to remember about eating and drinking in Mongolia.

First, it’s rude to accept food and not finish it. Food is a scarce and sacred resource on the steppe and it should be treated that way.

Second, always accept a plate, cup of tea, or anything else from your host with your right hand or two hands.

Finally, drinking is very common in Mongolian culture. A bottle of vodka for your nomadic host will always go a long way but be warned that (like many post-Soviet countries), alcoholism can be a problem. Always drink with caution and be aware of your surroundings and never drink and drive. Mongolia has a zero tolerance policy.

Besides vodka, airag , or fermented mare’s milk, is another common alcoholic beverage. It’s most commonly consumed in the countryside, where nomadic families make their own brew. Be cautious when drinking airag, your stomach won’t be used to the bacteria and it’s been known to make people run to the toilet. I’m speaking here from experience!

I recommend keeping your drinking to a minimum when you’re staying with a host family. Especially if you’re female or traveling alone.

Mongolian Food Khorkhog

Travel Insurance and Emergency Healthcare

Getting medical treatment is cheap compared to other countries. I paid about $3,000 all in for surgery in Ulaanbaatar at a private hospital when I broke my collarbone. If I was in the U.S. that same surgery would have probably been $30,000.

The downside of cheap medical treatments is that they aren’t always the most reliable or consistent. While I had a great experience, I can’t say that other foreigners have had the same.

This is why I always recommend purchasing travel insurance for your trip to Mongolia.

Should something terrible happen to you during your trip, such as a horse riding or car accident, your travel insurance policy should cover medical emergencies and evacuation. Be sure to do your research when looking at policies and choose the best one for you, your travels, and your budget.

Look for a policy that also covers trip cancellation in case you need to unexpectedly cancel your travel plans. Trip cancellation policies cover unforeseen events, like an illness, injury, jury duty, or an airline strike. Reimbursable costs in these instances could include transportation, accommodations, and tour costs, up to 100% depending on your policy.

If you experience a medical emergency while in Ulaanbaatar, the phone number is +976 103.

If you experience a medical emergency while outside of Ulaanbaatar, the best thing to do is get to the city as quickly as possible. If you don’t need to, don’t go to one of the local towns for medical treatment.

Hospitals I can vouch for in Ulaanbaatar are:

  • UB Songdo Private Hospital

You can find more information, including each hospital’s location and contact information, on our  what to do in case of emergency  page.

Breanna Wilson Mongolia Travel Expert

Author: Breanna Wilson

Hi! Sain uu! I’m Breanna, an American travel writer and adventurer living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for more than 5 years. I’ve written for and been featured in Condé Nast Traveler, CNN, Forbes, and the New York Times, among others. Read more of my Mongolia travel articles here .


Mongolia hasn’t been on my radar, but after reading your post I have changed my mind. Thanks for the inspiration.


This sounds like a tremendous cultural experience. A lot of good information and tips on visiting Mongolia.


My mate visited the Golden Eagle Festival last year and it looked like such an amazing experience! That’s insane that rental companies are charging 2k for a deposit?! I wouldn’t be able to decide went visit, autumn sounds like a great time for me (I think i will struggle in the summer heat). Such a thorough guide. Thanks!


Great timing for this post, thanks for the practical information for a trip.

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  • Passports, travel and living abroad
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  • Foreign travel advice

Entry requirements

This advice reflects the UK government’s understanding of current rules for people travelling on a full ‘British citizen’ passport from the UK, for the most common types of travel.

The authorities in Mongolia set and enforce entry rules. If you’re not sure how these requirements apply to you, contact the Mongolian Embassy in the UK .

COVID-19 rules

There are no COVID-19 testing or vaccination requirements for travellers entering Mongolia.

Passport validity requirements   

To enter Mongolia, your passport must have an ‘expiry date’ at least 6 months after the date you arrive.

Check with your travel provider that your passport and other travel documents meet requirements. Renew your passport if you need to.

You will be denied entry if you do not have a valid travel document or try to use a passport that has been reported lost or stolen.

Visa requirements

You do not need a visa to visit Mongolia as a tourist for up to 30 days within a 6-month period.

For longer stays, or for business, work or residency, you must apply for the type of visa you need . For more details, contact the Mongolian Embassy in the UK .

Registering with the authorities

Your hotel or landlord will register you using an app. If you are travelling independently or staying with friends, you must register yourself with the Mongolian Immigration Agency . You do not need to go in person.

The agency will issue you with a digital residence permit that shows your passport number, address, photograph and fingerprints. Always carry it when you are in Mongolia.

Borders with Mongolia

Mongolia takes border security very seriously and foreign nationals are not routinely allowed access to border areas. The authorities can regard zones of up to 100km inside the border as a border area. If you wish to travel in these areas, you must get permission from the State Frontier Guard Authority. Only a few specified land border crossings are open to foreigners.

Border points open to British citizens

There are normally 8 border points open to British passport holders:

  • Chinggis Khaan International Airport in Ulaanbaatar
  • Zamin Uud – road and train crossing to China
  • Bulgan – road crossing to China in the west
  • Bichigt – road crossing to China in the south-east
  • Tsagaannuur – road crossing to Russia in the far west
  • Sukhbaatar – train crossing to Russia
  • Altanbulag – road crossing to Russia
  • Ereen-Tsav – road crossing to Russia

You may not cross into China or Russia at other border points, as they are only open to Mongolians, Chinese or Russians.

If you travel by train across the China-Mongolia border, expect a delay of a few hours as the railways use different gauges.

It is difficult to get visas for China or Russia in Mongolia. Ask the Chinese and Russian embassies in London about their visa requirements before travelling to Mongolia.

Mongolia-Russia border

You can only enter Mongolia from Russia on public buses, trains, taxis or private vehicles. All international flights are suspended.

Russian border officials will carefully examine your travel documents.

If you have arrived in Mongolia from Russia and need assistance, call +976 (11) 458 133 and select the option ‘consular services for British nationals’.   

Vaccination requirements

At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the vaccinations and certificates you need in TravelHealthPro’s Mongolia guide .

Travelling with children

Adults accompanying children other than their own should have a notarised letter from the parents or legal guardian to confirm the arrangement.

Customs rules

There are strict rules about goods you can take into or out of Mongolia. You must declare anything that may be prohibited or subject to tax or duty.

If you become involved in a commercial dispute or a criminal investigation about a customs matter, you may be held in Mongolia until it is resolved. Ask to speak to the British Embassy, especially if the authorities say you must accept a travel ban.

Bringing your vehicle to Mongolia  

If you plan to enter Mongolia at a land border crossing in your own vehicle, inform the tax authorities and border troops in advance – contact Mongolian Customs (in Mongolian). You must complete a customs declaration form – you can do this at the border or at Ulaanbaatar City Customs Office, next to the train station. Make sure you have all the vehicle documents, including your driving licence, ownership records and insurance.

If you do not leave Mongolia in the vehicle you used to enter the country, you must pay customs tax. The amount of tax depends on the vehicle’s engine size and value. For information, see Mongolian Customs (in Mongolian).

If your vehicle breaks down and cannot be fixed, you must pay for it to be transported out of Mongolia or sell it to a local mechanic.

If you sell your broken-down vehicle to a mechanic, you must still pay customs tax when you leave. You must show the customs office evidence you sold the vehicle (proof of sale document, photos, a letter from the mechanic and a police report).

You must not leave your vehicle unattended or abandon it. If you do, Mongolian Customs will contact the British Embassy and send you a fine. If you leave your vehicle in Mongolia, you must pay to store it with a mechanic or at an official customs warehouse. When you leave the country, you must submit a customs declaration form and show your driving licence, car ownership records and evidence of valid insurance.

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COVID-19: travel health notice for all travellers

Mongolia travel advice

Latest updates: Editorial change

Last updated: May 23, 2024 08:00 ET

On this page

Safety and security, entry and exit requirements, laws and culture, natural disasters and climate, mongolia - take normal security precautions.

Take normal security precautions in Mongolia

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Petty crime, such as pickpocketing and purse snatching, occurs. This is common:

  • in Ulaanbaatar and other major cities 
  • in popular tourist areas
  • on public transportation
  • in open-air markets
  • at the central post office
  • at the Gandantegchinlen Monastery
  • at the State Department Store in Ulaanbaatar

While in Mongolia:

  • Ensure that your belongings, including your passport and other travel documents, are secure at all times. 
  • Exercise caution in crowded areas

There have been incidents of violent crime, such as assaults and robberies. Incidents occur more frequently in major cities. In Ulaanbaatar and other large cities such as Erdenet and Darkhan, be extra vigilant in the weeks leading up to and during major holidays, including:

  • the Naadam Festival in July
  • the Mongolian Lunar New Year (February 21- 23, 2023)
  • International Women’s Day (March 8) 
  • Soldiers’ Day in March

Do not walk alone after dark.

Individuals posing as police officers have robbed foreigners, particularly in Ulaanbaatar’s Sukhbaatar Square area. 

If approached, ask to see police credentials or offer to go to the police station. 

Business travellers should be aware that foreign companies have received threats of violence.


Demonstrations may occur. Even peaceful demonstrations can turn violent at any time. They can also lead to disruptions to traffic and public transportation.

Mass gatherings (large-scale events)

2SLGBTQI+ travellers

2SLGBTQI+ travellers have experienced harassment, verbal abuse and threats of violence.

Travel and your sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics

Adventure tourism

Tour operators may not adhere to international standards. 

If engaging in adventure tourism:

  • never do so alone and always hire an experienced guide from a reputable company
  • buy travel insurance that includes helicopter rescue and medical evacuation
  • ensure that the recreational activities you choose are covered by your travel insurance.
  • ensure that your physical condition is good enough to meet the challenges of your activity
  • ensure that you’re properly equipped and well informed about weather and other conditions that may pose a hazard
  • inform a family member or friend of your itinerary
  • obtain detailed information on each activity before setting out and do not venture off marked trails
  • do not use installation or equipment if you have any doubt about their safety 

Road travel

Road conditions .

Roads between the capital city and provinces are poor. Driving can be hazardous, especially in rural areas where paved roads are limited. In Ulaanbaatar the number of vehicles and current transportation infrastructure produce chronic traffic jams.

Access to rural areas can be hampered by heavy snowfalls during the winter months. 

If travelling to remote areas:

  • Plan your journey
  • Travel in a four-wheel-drive vehicle that is well-equipped with provisions, fuel and water
  • Avoid driving after dark

Road safety

Traffic drives on the right but many cars have right-side steering. This can lead to collisions on two-lane roads when drivers attempt to pass slower vehicles.

  • Drivers do not respect traffic laws and do not practice safe driving. 
  • Exercise caution while driving and anticipate potential hazards.

Accidents are common. 

  • Traffic laws are not consistently enforced.
  • Drivers are sometimes aggressive and drinking and driving is prevalent.
  • Use a GPS navigation system, if possible.

Public transportation

Taxi drivers have robbed passengers, sometimes violently. The use of “shared taxis” is discouraged because they are not reliable.

  • Only use licensed taxis equipped with meters. 
  • When possible, book taxis through your hotel. 

Pickpocketing is common on public buses. Overcrowding is common and women have reported inappropriate physical contact on buses. 

The rail network in is limited. Thefts occur frequently on trains between Mongolia and Russia.

We do not make assessments on the compliance of foreign domestic airlines with international safety standards.

Information about foreign domestic airlines

Every country or territory decides who can enter or exit through its borders. The Government of Canada cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet your destination’s entry or exit requirements.

We have obtained the information on this page from the Mongolian authorities. It can, however, change at any time.

Verify this information with the  Foreign Representatives in Canada .

Entry requirements vary depending on the type of passport you use for travel.

Before you travel, check with your transportation company about passport requirements. Its rules on passport validity may be more stringent than the country’s entry rules.

Regular Canadian passport

Your passport must be valid for at least 6 months beyond the date you expect to leave Mongolia.

Passport for official travel

Different entry rules may apply.

Official travel

Passport with “X” gender identifier

While the Government of Canada issues passports with an “X” gender identifier, it cannot guarantee your entry or transit through other countries. You might face entry restrictions in countries that do not recognize the “X” gender identifier. Before you leave, check with the closest foreign representative for your destination.

Other travel documents

Different entry rules may apply when travelling with a temporary passport or an emergency travel document. Before you leave, check with the closest foreign representative for your destination.

Useful links

  • Foreign Representatives in Canada
  • Canadian passports

Tourist visa: not required for stays of up to 30 days Business visa: required Student visa: required


Visitors who plan to stay for more than 30 days in Mongolia must register with the Office of Immigration, Naturalization and Foreign Citizens within 48 hours upon arrival.

Travel to and from China

If you travel to Mongolia through China, or plan to transit through or travel to China from Mongolia, you must meet China’s entry and exit requirements.

Travellers arriving in or departing from Mongolia through China should be aware of Chinese visa regulations. The Chinese embassy in Ulaanbaatar does not always grant visas to foreigners in Mongolia. If you plan to travel to Mongolia and then onward to China, obtain your Chinese visa before the start of your trip.

China’s entry and exit requirements

Travel to and from Russia

If you travel to Mongolia through Russia, or plan to transit through or travel to Russia from Mongolia, you must meet Russia’s entry and exit requirements.

Russia’s entry and exit requirements

Children and travel

Learn more about travelling with children .

Yellow fever

Learn about potential entry requirements related to yellow fever (vaccines section).

Relevant Travel Health Notices

  • Global Measles Notice - 13 March, 2024
  • COVID-19 and International Travel - 13 March, 2024

This section contains information on possible health risks and restrictions regularly found or ongoing in the destination. Follow this advice to lower your risk of becoming ill while travelling. Not all risks are listed below.

Consult a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic preferably 6 weeks before you travel to get personalized health advice and recommendations.

Routine vaccines

Be sure that your  routine vaccinations , as per your province or territory , are up-to-date before travelling, regardless of your destination.

Some of these vaccinations include measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, varicella (chickenpox), influenza and others.

Pre-travel vaccines and medications

You may be at risk for preventable diseases while travelling in this destination. Talk to a travel health professional about which medications or vaccines may be right for you, based on your destination and itinerary. 

Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

  • There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.

Country Entry Requirement*

  • Proof of vaccination is not required to enter this country.


  • Vaccination is not recommended.

* It is important to note that country entry requirements may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest diplomatic or consular office of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.

About Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres in Canada

There is a risk of hepatitis A in this destination. It is a disease of the liver. People can get hepatitis A if they ingest contaminated food or water, eat foods prepared by an infectious person, or if they have close physical contact (such as oral-anal sex) with an infectious person, although casual contact among people does not spread the virus.

Practise  safe food and water precautions and wash your hands often. Vaccination is recommended for all travellers to areas where hepatitis A is present.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a risk in some areas of this destination. It is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). It is spread to humans by the bite of infected ticks or occasionally when unpasteurized milk products are consumed.

Travellers to areas where TBE is found may be at higher risk  during April to November, and the risk is highest for people who hike or camp in forested areas.

Protect yourself from tick bites . The vaccine is not available in Canada. It may be available in the destination you are travelling to.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It can spread quickly from person to person by direct contact and through droplets in the air.

Anyone who is not protected against measles is at risk of being infected with it when travelling internationally.

Regardless of where you are going, talk to a health care professional before travelling to make sure you are fully protected against measles.

  Hepatitis B is a risk in every destination. It is a viral liver disease that is easily transmitted from one person to another through exposure to blood and body fluids containing the hepatitis B virus.  Travellers who may be exposed to blood or other bodily fluids (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) are at higher risk of getting hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all travellers. Prevent hepatitis B infection by practicing safe sex, only using new and sterile drug equipment, and only getting tattoos and piercings in settings that follow public health regulations and standards.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease. It can spread from person to person by direct contact and through droplets in the air.

It is recommended that all eligible travellers complete a COVID-19 vaccine series along with any additional recommended doses in Canada before travelling. Evidence shows that vaccines are very effective at preventing severe illness, hospitalization and death from COVID-19. While vaccination provides better protection against serious illness, you may still be at risk of infection from the virus that causes COVID-19. Anyone who has not completed a vaccine series is at increased risk of being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 and is at greater risk for severe disease when travelling internationally.

Before travelling, verify your destination’s COVID-19 vaccination entry/exit requirements. Regardless of where you are going, talk to a health care professional before travelling to make sure you are adequately protected against COVID-19.

 The best way to protect yourself from seasonal influenza (flu) is to get vaccinated every year. Get the flu shot at least 2 weeks before travelling.  

 The flu occurs worldwide. 

  •  In the Northern Hemisphere, the flu season usually runs from November to   April.
  •  In the Southern Hemisphere, the flu season usually runs between April and   October.
  •  In the tropics, there is flu activity year round. 

The flu vaccine available in one hemisphere may only offer partial protection against the flu in the other hemisphere.

The flu virus spreads from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Clean your hands often and wear a mask if you have a fever or respiratory symptoms.

In this destination, rabies is commonly carried by dogs and some wildlife, including bats. Rabies is a deadly disease that spreads to humans primarily through bites or scratches from an infected animal. While travelling, take precautions , including keeping your distance from animals (including free-roaming dogs), and closely supervising children.

If you are bitten or scratched by a dog or other animal while travelling, immediately wash the wound with soap and clean water and see a health care professional. In this destination, rabies treatment may be limited or may not be available, therefore you may need to return to Canada for treatment.  

Before travel, discuss rabies vaccination with a health care professional. It may be recommended for travellers who are at high risk of exposure (e.g., occupational risk such as veterinarians and wildlife workers, children, adventure travellers and spelunkers, and others in close contact with animals). 

Safe food and water precautions

Many illnesses can be caused by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated by bacteria, parasites, toxins, or viruses, or by swimming or bathing in contaminated water.

  • Learn more about food and water precautions to take to avoid getting sick by visiting our eat and drink safely abroad page. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
  • Avoid getting water into your eyes, mouth or nose when swimming or participating in activities in freshwater (streams, canals, lakes), particularly after flooding or heavy rain. Water may look clean but could still be polluted or contaminated.
  • Avoid inhaling or swallowing water while bathing, showering, or swimming in pools or hot tubs. 

Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.

Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.

The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

Typhoid   is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among children, travellers going to rural areas, travellers visiting friends and relatives or those travelling for a long period of time.

Travellers visiting regions with a risk of typhoid, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation, should speak to a health care professional about vaccination.  

Insect bite prevention

Many diseases are spread by the bites of infected insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas or flies. When travelling to areas where infected insects may be present:

  • Use insect repellent (bug spray) on exposed skin
  • Cover up with light-coloured, loose clothes made of tightly woven materials such as nylon or polyester
  • Minimize exposure to insects
  • Use mosquito netting when sleeping outdoors or in buildings that are not fully enclosed

To learn more about how you can reduce your risk of infection and disease caused by bites, both at home and abroad, visit our insect bite prevention page.

Find out what types of insects are present where you’re travelling, when they’re most active, and the symptoms of the diseases they spread.

Animal precautions

Some infections, such as rabies and influenza, can be shared between humans and animals. Certain types of activities may increase your chance of contact with animals, such as travelling in rural or forested areas, camping, hiking, and visiting wet markets (places where live animals are slaughtered and sold) or caves.

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, livestock (pigs, cows), monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats, and to avoid eating undercooked wild game.

Closely supervise children, as they are more likely to come in contact with animals.

Person-to-person infections

Stay home if you’re sick and practise proper cough and sneeze etiquette , which includes coughing or sneezing into a tissue or the bend of your arm, not your hand. Reduce your risk of colds, the flu and other illnesses by:

  •   washing your hands often
  • avoiding or limiting the amount of time spent in closed spaces, crowded places, or at large-scale events (concerts, sporting events, rallies)
  • avoiding close physical contact with people who may be showing symptoms of illness 

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) , HIV , and mpox are spread through blood and bodily fluids; use condoms, practise safe sex, and limit your number of sexual partners. Check with your local public health authority pre-travel to determine your eligibility for mpox vaccine.  

Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care professional.

High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.

Medical services and facilities

Health care is inadequate. 

A few hospitals in Ulaanbaatar are suitable for foreigners, but there is often a shortage of safe medicine and reliable medical staff.

You will likely need medical evacuation in case of serious illness or injury. The number of medical evacuation service providers is limited. Medical evacuation is very expensive.

Make sure you get travel insurance that includes coverage for medical evacuation and hospital stays.

Travel health and safety

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a   travel health kit , especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You must abide by local laws.

Learn about what you should do and how we can help if you are arrested or detained abroad .


Carry adequate identification at all times, such as your passport and registration documents. Keep a photocopy of your passport in case it is lost.

Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are severe. Convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Drugs, alcohol and travel

Mongolian law does not criminalize sexual acts or relationships between individuals of the same sex.

However, 2SLGBTQI+ travellers could be discriminated against based on their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, or sex characteristics. Same-sex marriage and civil unions are not legally recognized by Mongolian law.

According to the Mongolian National Human Rights Commission, 2SLGBTQI+ individuals have faced police harassment and surveillance.

2SLGBTQI+ travellers should carefully consider the risks of travelling to Mongolia.

Dual citizenship

Dual citizenship is not legally recognized in Mongolia.

If local authorities consider you a citizen of Mongolia, they may refuse to grant you access to Canadian consular services. This will prevent us from providing you with those services.

Travellers with dual citizenship

International Child Abduction

The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is an international treaty. It can help parents with the return of children who have been removed to or retained in certain countries in violation of custody rights. It does not apply between Canada and Mongolia.

If your child was wrongfully taken to, or is being held in Mongolia by an abducting parent:

  • act as quickly as you can
  • consult a lawyer in Canada and in Mongolia to explore all the legal options for the return of your child
  • report the situation to the nearest Canadian government office abroad or to the Vulnerable Children’s Consular Unit at Global Affairs Canada by calling the Emergency Watch and Response Centre

If your child was removed from a country other than Canada, consult a lawyer to determine if The Hague Convention applies.

Be aware that Canadian consular officials cannot interfere in private legal matters or in another country’s judicial affairs.

  • International Child Abduction: A Guidebook for Left-Behind Parents
  • Travelling with children
  • Canadian embassies and consulates by destination
  • Emergency Watch and Response Centre

You must carry an international driving permit.

International Driving Permit

Train travel to and from Russia  

If you travel to Mongolia by train from Russia, you may experience difficulties with border and customs agents. Make sure you declare all goods and cash, and complete all required paperwork.

The currency in Mongolia is the tugrik (MNT). U.S. dollars and credit cards are accepted in hotels and some restaurants, mainly in Ulaanbaatar. U.S. dollar traveller’s cheques are accepted at some hotels and can be converted at several banks.

Carry local currency, especially in rural areas.

Seismic activity

Mongolia is located in an active seismic zone. Earthquakes and landslides occur.

Earthquakes - What to Do?

Flooding and landslides

Heavy rains, particularly from mid-July to mid-September, can cause severe flooding and landslides. Roads may become impassable and infrastructure damaged.

  • Exercise caution, particularly in areas around major rivers
  • Stay informed of the latest regional weather forecasts
  • Follow the advice of local authorities, including evacuation orders

Large-scale emergencies abroad

Dust storms

Dust storms occur in May and June.   

If you decide to travel to the Gobi Desert region of Mongolia during the dust storm season:

  • know that you may expose yourself to serious safety risks
  • be prepared to change your travel plans on short notice, including cutting short or cancelling your trip
  • stay informed of the latest regional weather forecasts
  • follow the advice and instructions of local authorities

Extreme temperatures

Mongolia is subject to extreme temperatures (from minus 35° to 40° Celsius in the winter to plus 35° Celsius in the summer).

Air quality

Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar is at its peak during the winter months. 

During periods of high pollution:

  • limit outdoor activities
  • monitor local media and air pollution levels
  • follow the instructions of local authorities

Consult your doctor before booking your trip if you have lung, heart or respiratory problems

Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar - World Air Quality Index

Local services

In case of emergency, dial:

  • police: 102
  • medical assistance: 103
  • firefighters: 101

Consular assistance

For emergency consular assistance, call the Embassy of Canada in Mongolia and follow the instructions. At any time, you may also contact the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa.

The decision to travel is your choice and you are responsible for your personal safety abroad. We take the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provide credible and timely information in our Travel Advice to enable you to make well-informed decisions regarding your travel abroad.

The content on this page is provided for information only. While we make every effort to give you correct information, it is provided on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. The Government of Canada does not assume responsibility and will not be liable for any damages in connection to the information provided.

If you need consular assistance while abroad, we will make every effort to help you. However, there may be constraints that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide services.

Learn more about consular services .

Risk Levels

  take normal security precautions.

Take similar precautions to those you would take in Canada.

  Exercise a high degree of caution

There are certain safety and security concerns or the situation could change quickly. Be very cautious at all times, monitor local media and follow the instructions of local authorities.

IMPORTANT: The two levels below are official Government of Canada Travel Advisories and are issued when the safety and security of Canadians travelling or living in the country or region may be at risk.

  Avoid non-essential travel

Your safety and security could be at risk. You should think about your need to travel to this country, territory or region based on family or business requirements, knowledge of or familiarity with the region, and other factors. If you are already there, think about whether you really need to be there. If you do not need to be there, you should think about leaving.

  Avoid all travel

You should not travel to this country, territory or region. Your personal safety and security are at great risk. If you are already there, you should think about leaving if it is safe to do so.


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    To enter Mongolia, your passport must have an 'expiry date' at least 6 months after the date you arrive. Check with your travel provider that your passport and other travel documents meet ...

  20. Travel advice and advisories for Mongolia

    If you travel to Mongolia by train from Russia, you may experience difficulties with border and customs agents. Make sure you declare all goods and cash, and complete all required paperwork. Money. The currency in Mongolia is the tugrik (MNT). U.S. dollars and credit cards are accepted in hotels and some restaurants, mainly in Ulaanbaatar.