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Meaning of trip in English

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trip noun ( JOURNEY )

  • You should always check your oil , water and tyres before taking your car on a long trip.
  • How about a trip to the zoo this afternoon ?
  • She's going on a trip to New York, all expenses paid .
  • The travel company has written giving information about the trip.
  • He's always going off around the world on business trips, leaving his wife to cope with the babies by herself.
  • break-journey
  • circumnavigation

trip noun ( FALL )

  • collapse/fall in a heap idiom
  • drop like flies idiom
  • let go idiom
  • overbalance
  • parachutist

trip noun ( EXPERIENCE )

  • abstinence-only
  • non-intoxicant
  • non-intoxicating
  • performance-enhancing
  • pill-popping
  • substance abuse

trip verb ( LOSE BALANCE )

  • fall She slipped and fell.
  • drop Several apples dropped from the tree.
  • collapse Several buildings collapsed in the earthquake.
  • crumple He fainted and crumpled into a heap on the floor.
  • tumble A huge rock tumbled down the mountain.
  • plunge Four of the mountaineers plunged to their deaths when their ropes broke.
  • The bowler tripped as he was delivering the ball .
  • She tripped and fell over.
  • I tripped as I got off the bus .
  • She tripped over the rug .
  • I tripped on a piece of wire that someone had stretched across the path .

trip verb ( MOVE )

  • bowl down/along something

trip verb ( SWITCH )

  • anti-static
  • capacitance
  • electricity
  • high-voltage
  • insulating tape
  • non-electric
  • non-electrical
  • non-electronic
  • solid-state

trip verb ( EXPERIENCE )

Phrasal verb, trip | american dictionary, trip noun [c] ( travel ), trip noun [c] ( experience ), trip verb [i/t] ( lose balance ), trip | business english, examples of trip, collocations with trip.

These are words often used in combination with trip .

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trip mode on meaning

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  • Dictionary +Plus Word Lists
  • trip (JOURNEY)
  • trip (FALL)
  • trip (EXPERIENCE)
  • guilt/power/ego trip
  • trip (LOSE BALANCE)
  • trip (MOVE)
  • trip (SWITCH)
  • trip (TRAVEL)
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TF Resource

Mode choice

Mode choice model form and structure

Factors influencing mode choice

Traveler characteristics (socio-demographics, attitudes, perceptions, lifestyle)

Modal availability and characteristics

Mode characteristics

Characteristics of the journey

Mathematical formulation

Practical Issues in Mode Choice Modeling

Market segmentation

Transferability of mode choice models


Page categories

Activity Based Models

Needs Review

Topic Circles

More pages in this category:

Mode choice is the process where the means of traveling is determined. The means of travel is referred to the travel mode, which may be by private automobile, public transportation, walking, bicycling, or other means. How desirable a travel mode is usually is expressed using utilities . In most travel models, mode choice is applied to travel that has already been estimated, meaning that mode choice is applied to a trip or tour, or group of trips or tours, where the origin and destination are already known.

Mode choice is an important part of models that are used for analyses such as:

  • Major transportation investment projects since they may attract travelers not only from competing facilities but also competing modes;
  • Transit service changes, which may encourage or discourage travelers from using transit;
  • Long range forecasts, where changes in demographics or in travel conditions (e.g. increased congestion) may alter the relative worths of different modes for some or all travelers;
  • Pricing policy analyses, which may discourage travelers from using modes with increased prices; and
  • Land use planning analyses, where changes in development patterns may make certain modes more or less attractive relative to others.

If a model is vehicle-trip based (i.e., if vehicle trips rather than person trips are generated and distributed), there is no need for mode choice or vehicle occupancy modeling capabilities.

# Mode choice model form and structure

In a conventional four-step model, mode choice is considered the third step in the process, following trip distribution and preceding network assignment . In these models, the outputs of trip distribution are person trip tables, which are matrices of trips where the rows and columns represent some aggregate geography, usually transportation analysis zones (TAZ). By convention, at this point in the modeling process, the rows correspond to trip productions and the columns to trip attractions . The mode choice process determines the percentage of trips made by each mode for each cell in the matrix (zone pair).

In tour based models , mode choice is typically separated into two stages, the tour level and the trip level. At the tour level, it is assumed that prior steps in the model have generated tours whose origins (usually home) and primary activity locations are known. In a disaggregate activity based model application, for each tour, the probability of using each mode is computed, and the chosen mode is realized through Monte Carlo simulation. At the trip level, it is assumed that prior steps have generated the stops on each tour and their locations and that tour mode choice has been simulated. The trip mode choice component simulates the mode for each trip between every two stops on a tour, including the origin and the primary activity location. Trip mode choice is dependent on tour mode choice in that a chosen tour mode will allow only certain trip modes as valid. For example, on an auto tour, where the vehicle is brought along to all stops, transit may not permitted for trips on that tour.

In both trip based and tour based models, mode choice is determined using probabilities for each mode estimated from the characteristics of the trip, the modes, the traveler, and the environment in which the travel occurs. In an aggregate model, such as a four-step model, mode choice is realized by applying the probabilities as percentages to the trips to which the probabilities apply. In a disaggregate model, such as an activity based model, the probabilities inform a Monte Carlo simulation process that simulates the mode for each tour/trip.

Typically, mode choice is formulated as a discrete choice model with alternatives corresponding to the specific tour or trip modes. The following types of mode alternatives may be found in these models:

  • Drive alone
  • Shared ride with 2 occupants
  • Shared ride with 3 or more occupants

In some models, auto modes may be further stratified by having separate sets of alternatives for potential priced road users and non-priced road users.

  • Transit with walk access at the home end

In some models, transit modes may be further stratified by having separate sets of alternatives for by type of transit, such as commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, express bus, local bus, etc. In some models, school bus may be an alternative for tours or trips with a school purpose.

Some regions might specify more complex travel models than are warranted based on existing travel choices represented in a travel survey. This is often the case for regions that anticipate testing new alternatives in the future. For example, a region that does not have HOV lanes in a base year might specify a model that stratifies the auto mode by group size rather than simply modeling drive alone and carpool trips. This would provide the capability for testing alternative carpool lane treatments. Likewise, an area without fixed guideway transit service may specify mode models that include walk and drive access (to estimate park-and-ride lot usage) and fixed guideway submodes in order to test future alternatives.

# Factors influencing mode choice

# traveler characteristics (socio-demographics, attitudes, perceptions, lifestyle).

The characteristics of individual travelers affects their choice of mode. These may include observed characteristics, such as age, gender, driver’s license status, or worker or student status, and unobserved characteristics, such as awareness of transportation options, consideration of specific modes, attitudes, and personal preferences. Characteristics of a traveler’s household, such as income level and vehicle availability, may also affect mode choice.

# Modal availability and characteristics

Obviously, for a mode to be chosen, it must be available to the traveler. Availability may not be able to always be clearly defined. For example, an auto driver mode is generally unavailable to a young child, but it may also be unavailable to a disabled person, someone without a driver’s license, or someone who does not have a vehicle available. Sometimes these characteristics may not be observable; for example, someone whose household does not own a car may still be able to borrow or rent an auto or use a car sharing service.

In general, there are no restrictions for any traveler to be an auto passenger. Auto driver modes may be limited to those who can be defined as eligible to drive, such as persons over the legal driving age, and perhaps those holding driver’s licenses, if that characteristic is simulated in the model. It is more likely that such characteristics would be known in disaggregate activity based models than in household based aggregate models.

In many models, however, auto drivers are not distinguished from passengers, and the auto mode definitions are based on vehicle occupancy (e.g., drive alone, two person shared ride, etc.). In this case, any restrictions are usually applied only for the drive alone mode.

The availability of the walk mode is in theory unrestricted, unless those with mobility limitations that would prevent the ability to walk are specifically identified in the model. However, as a practical matter, very long trips or tours almost never use the walk mode, and in many models, trips over a certain length are deemed not to have the walk mode available. The same type of restriction is sometimes implemented for bicycle modes as well (thought with a longer maximum trip length.

Availability of public transit modes is generally not restricted; however, there may be no reasonable transit paths for some origin-destination combinations. It is common practice to separate transit modes into those with walk access/egress at the home end and those with auto access/egress. The walk access mode often has restrictions on the maximum walk length, similar to those used for the walk mode, and so there may be origin-destination combinations where there are no valid transit paths (for example, if the origin is not within the maximum walk distance of any transit stop). In theory, there is no limit on auto access distance, but there may be practical limitations imposed in some models. In general, a transit mode is deemed to be available if the transit path building process is able to find a valid path from the origin to the destination.

# Mode characteristics

Mode characteristics are usually measures of the level of service provided by the mode. For motorized (auto and transit) modes, the following characteristics are often used:

  • In-vehicle time
  • Walk egress time, which may be referred to as “terminal time”
  • Parking cost

For auto modes, the auto operating cost is usually used as a characteristic. This is generally defined as the marginal cost of operating the vehicle for the trip or tour, which in large part is the fuel cost but may also include other costs that vary by the distance traveled.

For transit modes, other characteristics that are often part of the mode choice model include:

  • Walk access time
  • Auto access time
  • Initial wait time
  • Transfer wait time
  • Transfer travel time (e.g. walking between stops)
  • Number of transfers

For non-motorized modes, characteristics are usually limited to time and or distance. Because speeds may vary much more among travelers for non-motorized than for motorized modes, it may be difficult to estimate travel times for individual travelers. For bicycle modes, a limited amount of research has been done indicating that bicyclists prefer paths that include dedicated bicycle facilities, fewer turns, less vehicular traffic, fewer traffic controls, smooth pavement, level terrain, and no on-street parking. Some of these characteristics, however, may be difficult to quantify in some modeling environments.

# Characteristics of the journey

Characteristics of the tour or trip may have an effect on the mode choice decision. Some examples include:

Time of day – This may affect not only the level of transportation service (which may also be considered in the mode characteristics variables) but also considerations such as a higher preference for bicycling, walking, or waiting in daylight hours.

Stops on a tour – In a tour based model, the presence, number, and type of stops may have an effect on mode choice. For example, it may be more desirable to use an auto for a tour with many shopping stops, or with stops related to picking up or dropping off passengers.

Certain land use characteristics may favor the use of some modes. In general, more densely developed areas see higher shares of transit and walking modes. The land use characteristics that affect mode choice are often included in the form of variables representing density of development or other features near the origin or destination of the tour or trip. Some examples include:

  • Population density
  • Employment density, often by type
  • Measures of “mixed land use” density that consider how much different types of development (e.g. commercial and residential) occur
  • Intersection density, which considers the density of the road network as well as its connectivity

# Mathematical formulation

Most mode choice models are discrete choice models , with logit (multinomial, nested, or cross-nested) being the most comnmon formualtion.

# Practical Issues in Mode Choice Modeling

# market segmentation.

Experience shows that different segments of the population behave differently regarding mode choice. Some examples are straightforward; for example, travelers without a car available are less likely to use auto modes than travelers who always have a car available. Therefore, some segments may be defined as person or household characteristics (gender, household income, number of vehicles or vehicle sufficiency). Other segments may represent geographic or land use characteristics. For example, a model may include a segment for travel to the central business district (CBD) or to the regional airport. While some of the effects of these types of segmentation may be captured in other model variables (e.g., parking prices at the airport or density of CBD land use), other effects may not be easily captures (e.g., the fact that many attractions can be reached easily without an auto in the CBD).

A critical issue regarding segmentation in mode choice modeling is the availability of data for model estimation and validation. Since most tours or trips are made by auto modes, estimation data sets are dominated by auto travel. The data to estimate separate models or parameters by segment may often be insufficient. There are also data sufficiency issues regarding validation and calibration as there may be insufficient data to determine specific values of segment-specific parameters.

# Transferability of mode choice models

Because of the expense of data collection and the relatively low shares of non-auto modes in survey data sets, transferred mode choice models are fairly common. The research on the validity of mode choice model transferring is mixed, as documented by Cambridge Systematics et al., 2012 and Rossi and Bhat, 2014.

# Calibration/Validation

(see Model calibration and validation )

The FHWA Model Validation Manual (Cambridge Systematics, Inc. et al., 2010) includes detailed information about validation of mode choice models in Chapter 7. The main sources of data for validation of mode choice models include the following:

Transit ridership counts – Transit ridership counts have the best information on the total amount of travel by transit, usually at the route level. It is important to recognize, however, that ridership (boarding) counts represent “unlinked trips,” meaning that a person is counted each time he or she boards a new transit vehicle. So a trip that involves transit transfers is counted multiple times. Mode choice models generally consider “linked trips,” where a trip including transfers counts as only one trip. Information on transfer rates is required to convert unlinked trips to linked trips; such information generally is obtained from transit on-board surveys.

Transit rider survey – A transit rider survey (typically an on-board survey) is an invaluable source of information for validation of the transit outputs of mode choice models but may have also been a data source for model estimation. A wealth of information that cannot be obtained from transit counts is available from on-board surveys, including:

Transit trip origin-destination patterns by trip purpose

Access modes;

Transit paths (surveys should ask riders to list all routes used in order for the linked trip);

Transit submodes used (e.g., bus, light rail);

Transit transfer activity; and

Characteristics of the surveyed riders and their households.

It should be noted that transit on-board surveys usually provide data only for individual transit trips, not tours, and so their use in estimating transit travel in tour-based models is limited.

  • Household travel/activity survey – If such a survey is available, it may have also been a data source for model estimation although data from other sources such as transit on-board surveys may also have been used in model estimation. The household survey is the best source for information on nontransit travel data since the number of observations for transit travel is usually small. The expanded household survey data can be used to produce observed mode shares for nontransit travel by purpose for a number of geographic and demographic market segments.
  • Highway usage data – Data on highway usage such as toll road and high-occupancy vehicle lane use would be helpful validation data for models that include related modal alternatives.

The most basic aggregate checks of mode choice model results are comparisons of modeled trips or tours by mode, or mode shares, to observed data by market segment. Market segments include trip or tour purposes as well as demographic segments, such as income or vehicle availability levels, and geographically defined segments. It is critical to remember, though, that aggregate validation of regional mode shares is insufficient to validate the mode choice model. Disaggregate validation, and validation of market segments of interest, are also needed.

Mode choice models are typically applied using trip tables (or their tour-based equivalents) as inputs. The mode choice model’s results, therefore, are shares of the total trip table for each market segment that use each of the modal alternatives. Validation of the model’s aggregate results involves checking the shares for the model’s base year scenario results against observed mode shares.

A household survey is the only comprehensive data source covering all modes, and there-fore is the only source for mode shares. However, mode shares for modes that are used relatively infrequently – notably transit modes – as well as mode shares for relatively small segments of the population (such as members of zero-vehicle, high income households) cannot be accurately estimated from household surveys due to small sample sizes.

Transit ridership counts provide estimates of total transit trips, not mode shares. To convert these trips to shares, an estimate of the total trip table for each market segment is needed. Assuming good validation of the trip generation and distribution components (or their tour-based equivalents), the trip table outputs from the trip distribution model can provide this information. Basically, the transit trips by submode, access mode, trip purpose, and other segmentation level, segmented using the transit rider survey data, can be subtracted from the total trips represented in the trip table to obtain estimates of “observed” nontransit trips. The nontransit trips can be separated into trips by individual mode (auto and nonmotorized submodes) using information from the household travel survey. While it may be problematic to find an alternate source for some segments or modes (such as bicycle travel), transit trips and shares by segment may be estimated using data sources including ridership counts and transit rider surveys.

The mode choice model validation process is tied in with the highway and transit assignment validation processes because these processes are better able to make use of independent aggregate data at the link or route level. It is common practice to compare overall mode choice model results to the observed data for the region. It is important to recognize that this type of regional check is not sufficient to determine that the mode choice model is validated, any more than it would be sufficient to validate a highway assignment model simply by comparing total regional vehicle miles traveled (VMT) to observed VMT. Aggregate validation must also be performed for all relevant market segments for which information can be obtained.

Any calibration of the transit assignment process may lead to model changes that affect mode choice, whether they are network changes, revisions to path building or skimming , or other changes to the model. The mode choice models cannot be considered validated until the transit assignment model has also been validated.

In disaggregate validation, model predictions are compared with observed data to reveal systematic biases. Disaggregate checks are appropriate for estimated models, as opposed to transferred models where the estimation data set would not be available. Logit models are disaggregately estimated (one record per trip/activity), and therefore disaggregate validation should be performed when logit mode choice models are estimated, along with the aggregate checks described above.

Generally, disaggregate validation is performed by applying the model using a data set with known choice results (such as a revealed-preference survey data set) and checking the results by one or more segmentation variables. Examples of segmentation variables include:

  • Income level;
  • Vehicle availability level;
  • Geographic segmentation (e.g., counties, area types); and
  • Trip length segments.

Disaggregate validation of a model ideally should be performed using a data set that is independent of the data set used for model estimation. However, most urban area household travel surveys have such small sample sizes that the entire data set is needed for model estimation and so there is no independent model estimation data set available for validation. This is especially true for mode choice models, where the household survey itself is often inadequate for model estimation due to low incidence of transit travel.

Limited disaggregate validation can be performed using the same data set used for model estimation, but reporting the results by market segment. Logit model estimation software has the capability to apply the estimated model to a data set in the same form as the estimation data set. For example, a logit mode choice model could be applied to the data set used for estimation but the results may be reported by vehicle availability or income level. It might be found, for example, that transit with auto access is being chosen too often in the model by households with zero vehicles.

(opens new window) provides examples of mode choice model parameters for level of service variables and relationships among parameters.

Sensitivity testing can be performed for mode choice models by varying model inputs and checking results for reasonableness. Model inputs that can be varied include level of service variables used in the trip distribution model (time/speed and cost) and the demographic or zone-level variables that are used as model inputs. Some example tests include:

  • Increasing or decreasing highway or transit travel times by a fixed percentage regionwide;
  • Increasing/decreasing parking costs in the CBD by a fixed percentage;
  • Increasing/decreasing headways on selected transit routes or submodes by a fixed percentage or amount;
  • Increasing/decreasing fares on selected transit submodes by a fixed percentage;
  • Changing development patterns for forecast years by moving projected new activity among different parts of the modeled region (e.g., from suburbs to small urban centers or from outlying areas to infill); and
  • Reallocating the number of households by income level for a forecast year.

The resultant changes in demand due to changes in a model input variable reflect the sensitivity to the variable; the sensitivity level is determined by the coefficient of the variable in the utility function. Simple “parametric” sensitivity tests can be performed by introducing small changes in the input variable or in the parameter itself and checking the results for reasonableness. The changes in demand for a modal alternative (or group of alternatives) with respect to a change in a particular variable can be expressed as arc elasticities.

# References

(opens new window)

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I went on the trip of a lifetime to Bali, Indonesia. Here are 4 things I wish I knew before visiting.

  • In April, I went on a trip to Bali, Indonesia.
  • In 2020, my trip was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic so I was thrilled to finally visit.
  • I enjoyed my vacation but there are some reasons I'm unlikely to rush back to the island.

Insider Today

Earlier this year, I went on a trip around India. Before returning home to the UK, I took a detour to Bali, Indonesia.

I'd seen remote workers and holidaymakers on TikTok promoting the idyllic island as the perfect chilled-out vacation and was excited to see it for myself, especially after canceling a trip to Bali in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

I'm happy I experienced the warmth and hospitality of the locals, which admittedly was the best part of my trip. But after seeing several parts of the island, there are four things I wish I'd known beforehand.

I previously had a trip to Bali, Indonesia, canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and was thrilled to finally make it to the island.

trip mode on meaning

I started my month-long trip to Asia earlier this year in India, and made my way to Bali for the last week of my trip.

I had seen Bali become a popular vacation destination on social media, and was excited to experience it for myself.

I experienced an earthquake during my first couple of days, and soon learned these are common in this part of the world.

trip mode on meaning

Two days into the trip, my friend and I were getting ready in our hotel when the sliding door of the bathroom began shaking — it wasn't until the whole room began swaying that I realized we were experiencing an earthquake.

Reuters reported that this 6.6 magnitude earthquake was in the Java Sea, not Bali, but could be felt over parts of Indonesia. The hotel staff informed us that earthquakes are fairly common in Bali, and there was no tsunami risk on this occasion so not to worry.

Hearing the word tsunami sent warning signals to my brain and I couldn't help but think of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami . Though I knew we were fine, it made the rest of the trip unsettling.

This is a reality that, in my experience, was glossed over in social media coverage about the island, but something all travelers should be aware of.

If I had known about this before visiting, I don't think it would have changed my decision, but I would have been better mentally prepared.

Bali caters to the needs of tourists, meaning some areas won't make for an authentic Balinese experience.

trip mode on meaning

Like other major tourism spots, Bali's industry was hit heavily by the pandemic. Business Insider reported in 2021 that Bali had only 45 international tourists from January to October that year.

The Jakarta Post reported in 2020 that 80% of Bali's economy was dependent on tourism, which was clear from the hordes of Australian and European tourists I met while there.

In central areas like Seminyak, Kuta, and Canggu you can find shopping malls and international cuisine, and in my opinion, feels similar to other major cities.

That's not to say you should cancel your trip. Jimbaran, a coastal area in the south of Bali, is perfect if you're looking for a serene resort experience with breathtaking views. Ubud, a landlocked area in the rainforest, is a perfect escape from the Balinese city life and also has temples dotted throughout.

Popular attractions are spread out, and the only way to reach them is by scooter or car – meaning traffic gets worse as the day goes on.

trip mode on meaning

The friend I was traveling with had been to Bali numerous times, so I was aware the island wasn't accessible on foot. Many tourists opt to hire a scooter, however, taxis are an affordable and easy option bookable through a local app called Grab .

I wasn't prepared for the journey times which are easily over two hours between destinations. We heard that Rock Bar , a coastal bar in Jimbaran, was a must-see, but we spent over 3.5 hours in the car going there and back to our hotel in Seminyak.

We were only in Bali for one week so rather than packing our itinerary, we opted to spend our time relaxing.

I'd recommend coming to Bali on a longer trip and splitting your time between hotels in different areas to allow you to see more. If I had more time, I would have split my time between Ubud and Seminyak.

The heaviest monsoon season is between October to April, however it's common for rain to appear spontaneously.

trip mode on meaning

BI previously reported that monsoon season in Bali runs from October to April. I traveled at the end of April, but the forecasts were dry for weeks leading up to my trip.

One day I woke up to the sound of rain against the window. The weather in my home country, Scotland, isn't good at the best of times, but I had no idea how heavy the Balinese rain could be, and how badly it affects areas of the island.

Our hotel receptionist said the rain in Bali can come from nowhere, and once it starts, it often doesn't stop for a week.

While in a taxi later in the day, the streets were completely flooded. Though the driver was unfazed, I had never seen anything like it.

The locals in Bali are what makes this part of the world so special, and worth at least one visit.

trip mode on meaning

Though the trip, for reasons out of anyone's control, wasn't all it was cracked up to be, the star of the trip was the locals on the island.

Speaking to them about their country, and hearing how proud and happy they are to open their doors to tourists reminded me of the warm reception people give tourists in my home country, Scotland .

We also had a minor accident when my travel companion slipped by the pool, which resulted in a trip to the hospital. The staff in our hotel rallied to make sure we were taken care of.

I can see why remote workers who fell in love with the island, and its people, don't hastily leave.

Though I would like to explore the rest of Asia first before returning, this trip changed my perspective on travel.

trip mode on meaning

In recent years, I've begun being selective about the kind of vacations I want to go on.

I've done five-star luxury vacations to Switzerland and Dubai, and though I enjoyed those, I'm now looking for a sense of spontaneity – and Bali certainly didn't disappoint in this aspect.

I don't feel the need to rush back now that I've seen the island, and it wasn't quite as advertised on social media, but I am excited to explore more of Southeast Asia to find my next adventure.

trip mode on meaning

Basics of Alarms and Trips

Alarm/Trip : Something happens—a signal peaks or falls—and you need to know. A limit alarm trip can trigger the response needed to maintain normal, and safe, operations.

A limit alarm trip monitors a process signal (such as one representing temperature, pressure, level or flow) and compares it against a preset limit. If the process signal moves to an undesirable high or low condition, the alarm activates a relay output to warn of trouble, provide on/off control or institute an emergency shutdown.

While limit alarm trips are best known as a sure way to activate a warning light, siren or bell when a process problem occurs, they are also called upon to do much more. In fact, today’s highly flexible and versatile alarm trips can be found working in a wide range of applications, under an impressive list of pseudonyms. Here are just some:

Types of Alarms

“Hard” vs. “Soft” Alarms

Because they are hard-wired into the process and provide relay outputs, independent limit alarm trips are often referred to as “hard” alarms. This term differentiates a “hard” alarm trip from the software-implemented alarm (a “soft” alarm) which is found within a  Distributed Control System (DCS) or a programmable logic controller (PLC).

Why Use “Hard” Alarms?

Most every plant performs alarm functions using “soft” alarms within their DCS or PLC. As such, some might argue that “hard” alarms are not necessary. However, “hard” alarm trips complement DCS and PLC systems by providing redundancy, simple control and critical safeguarding.

Because of the potential consequences to plant and personnel, “hard” alarm trips continue to be the accepted industry standard for a wide range of primary alarming functions, as well as for backup of DCS and PLC strategies in critical Emergency Shutdown (ESD) and Safety Related Systems (SRS).

PLC Hardware Alarms

“Soft” alarms can be susceptible to common-mode failures (such as failure of a computer-based system’s power supply, hardware or software) that could disable all of the “soft” alarms in the entire system. Therefore, “soft” alarms may be inappropriate for providing the degree of protection demanded for some critical applications, such as those found in Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD) or Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS).

“Hard” alarms are not exposed to the adverse effects of a common-mode failure because they maintain complete independence from the DCS or PLC (Figure 2). “Hard” alarm trips distributed throughout a facility can be used to provide warnings and safety backup measures in the event of a common-mode failure. That’s why in critical and safety-related applications, the use of “hard” alarms is a requirement of many insurance companies.

Hardware Alarms

Another good reason why “hard” alarms should be considered in place of, or to back up, “soft” alarms is that rather than intermittent scanning of individual points as is accomplished by a DCS or PLC, each “hard” alarm

provides continuous supervision of an individual process signal. In some fast-changing applications, the computer’s scanning speed or network throughput time may be inadequate. In addition, “hard” alarms are typically easier to set up, which eliminates potential programming errors. They are also less prone to failure, inadvertent changes and tampering.

Basic Limit Alarm Trip Functions

Anything from simple annunciation to shut down of an entire process can be handled by a limit alarm trip. An alarm trip accepts an input signal from a monitoring or control instrument, such as a signal transmitter or sensor.

When the monitored variable falls outside of a user-set “Trip” (also called “Set”) Point, the alarm trip activates one or more of its relay outputs. The relay(s) are typically used to control a warning light, annunciator, bell, pump, motor or a shutdown system.

In most units, once an alarm trips, it remains in an alarm condition until the process signal re-crosses the trip point and passes out of the deadband. An adjustable deadband makes it possible to increase or decrease this range, thus affecting what point the relay returns to its normal, non- alarm state.

Using this relatively simple “cause and effect” action, limit alarm trips can be economically used in a wide variety of basic and complex applications:

  • Warn of trouble by providing a “hard” alarm output when a process signal exceeds a high and/or low limit.
  • Create an independent emergency shutdown system to aver t undesirable situations in the event of a central power failure or DCS shutdown.
  • Provide redundant warning or shutdown capabilities to back-up and compensate for failure of DCS or PLC “soft” alarms.
  • For simple applications, replace over-complicated PLCs with alarm trips that are easier to set up and use.
  • Reliably and cost-effectively provide on/off control of pumps and motors in batching and similar applications.
  • Sense dangerous conditions and shutdown control equipment before it is damaged.
  • Monitor an input for a change in value, and trip an alarm when the input rate-of-change exceeds a selected rate, over a selected time period.

High and Low Limit Alarms

A high or low limit alarm is triggered when the value of the variable being measured exceeds a preset high or low alarm trip point (Figure 3).

This type of alarm trip monitors temperature, pressure, level, flow, position or status variables, and is typically used to warn of unwanted process conditions or to provide emergency shutdown.

High-Low Alarm Trip

Alarm Trips with Multiple Relay Outputs

A limit alarm trip can have one, two or even four relay outputs. Typically, each relay output can be set to respond to a different trip point. This would include any combination of high or low alarm trips, with different trip point settings for each. Some alarm trips also offer the option of setting the relay to trip if there is an input fault (such as a broken sensor), or to alert that there is a problem with the alarm trip itself (Figure 4).

The following examples describe how alarm trip points might be set for a dual output limit alarm trip. Of course, if thealarm trip had four relay outputs, any combination of these same trip options could be applied to the remaining two relays.

Alarms to Annunciator

A status change (alarm condition) of a single high alarm occurs when the input rises above the trip point. The status will return to a non-alarm condition when the input falls below the deadband.

High/High Alarm

This alarm accepts one input, but has two high relays , each with its own trip point. When the input rises above Trip Point 1 (the lower trip point), the first set of contacts will change status merely to serve as a warning; however, should the input rise above Trip Point 2 (the higher trip point), the second set of contacts change status, which may initiate an emergency shutdown. With four relay outputs, you can provide three levels of warning and then an emergency shutdown (Figure 5).

Multiple Alarm Trips

A status change (alarm condition) of a single low alarm occurs when the input falls below the trip point. The status will return to a non-alarm condition when the input rises above the deadband. A typical application of a low alarm is warning of a low tank level to avert problems with a pump running dry.

Low/Low Alarm

A dual low alarm accepts one input, but has two relays, each with its own independent trip point. When the input falls below Trip Point 1, the first set of contacts will change status merely to serve as a warning. Should the input fall below Trip Point 2, the second set of contacts change status, possibility initiating a shutdown of the process.

The low/low alarm’s contacts will return to a non-alarm status when the signal rises above the lowest deadband. The low alarm’s contacts return to a non-alarm status when the input signal rises above the higher alarm deadband. A typical application includes monitoring the low extreme temperature of a cryogenic tank to avoid over-cooling.

High/Low Alarm

A dual high/low alarm accepts one input and has two relays, each with a separate trip point (Figure 3).

Rate of Change Alarm Trip

Rate-of-Change Alarm

Used to detect changes in the measured value in units per minute or second, a rate of change alarm monitors an input for a change in value with respect to time (Figure 6). The alarm is set to trip when the input rate-of-change exceeds a user-selected rate (Delta) over a user-selected time period (Delta Time).

Input Fault Alarm

On some alarm trips, you can set one or more of the relays to trip when an input is interrupted, such as in the instance of a sensor break. This provides an alert of a non-critical sensor break without causing a costly false shutdown.

Self-Diagnostic Alarm

Some limit alarm trips continuously monitor their own status during operation, and trip if they are not operating properly.

Average and Differential Alarms

An average limit alarm trips when the average of two or three input signals exceeds a pre-selected high or low trip point (Figure 7). A differential alarm trips when the difference between two input signals, such as two RTD temperature sensors, exceeds a specific value.

Averaging and Window Alarm

Window Alarm

The Window Alarm is activated when the process variable is outside of the low/high trip point ranges (Figure 8).

On/Off Control

A limit alarm trip can also be used as a simple on/off controller such as those required in level applications (pump/valve control) when filling or emptying a container or tank (Figure 9).

ON-OFF Control Alarms

Alarm Trip Relay Responses

Normally open and normally closed.

Normal (or normally) means the relay is in the de-energized (or shelf) state. When in the de-energized state, a normally-open (NO) relay contact does not permit current to flow to the common (C), resulting in an open circuit (Figure 10).

When the relay is energized, there is a closed circuit between the NO and the C terminal. A normally-closed (NC) relay contact allows current to flow to the common (C) when the relay is in the normal (de-energized) state (Figure 11). When the relay is energized, there is an open circuit between the NC and the C terminal (Figure 12).

There are three common types of alarm relay configurations: Single-Pole/Single-Throw; Single-Pole/ Double-Throw; and Double-Pole/Double-Throw.

Single-Pole/Single-Throw (SPST)

A SPST has one pole (Figure 10). When the contact closes, it allows current to flow across the relay. If this relay is normally- open (NO), current only flows when the contact trips (energized). If the contact is configured normally-closed (NC), current will flow until the alarm trips (energizes). The choice of Normally-Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC) is typically selectable.

SPST & SPDT Alarms

Single-Pole/Double-Throw (SPDT)

A SPDT contact has one pole and sends the electrical path in one of two directions (Figure 11). By providing both the NO and NC contacts, this type of relay can be quickly wired for any application.

Double-Pole/Double-Throw (DPDT)

These give a single alarm trip two separate outputs from one relay (Figure 12). Both contacts on a DPDT change status at the same time. A DPDT relay make it possible for an alarm trip to perform two simultaneous functions. They are commonly used to annunciate and cause an action to occur, such as shutting off a valve or starting a blower.

Failsafe and Non-Failsafe

Configuring an alarm trip as either failsafe and non- failsafe is a primary safety consideration. In a safety application, the foremost concern should be the alarm trip’s action in the case of failure. An alarm trip with a relay that de-energizes if the input signal exceeds the trip point is called failsafe (Figure 16).

This unit’s relay is energized in the normal operating condition. As a result, should the power fail, this unit’s relay operates as if it were in the alarm condition (Figure 13). Failsafe relay action is chosen for the vast majority of alarming applications.

Failsafe Relay Alarms

The other relay action is non-failsafe. This unit’s relay is de-energized when the input signal is in the normal condition (Figure 15) and energized when an alarm occurs. In this configuration, the alarm trip will not provide a warning if there is a power failure (Figure 14).Should a loss of power and alarm condition coincide, the alarm would go undetected.

Normally-Open/Normally Closed Combined with Failsafe/Non-Failsafe

The characteristics of Failsafe/Non-Failsafe and Normally- Open/Normally-Closed relay action can be integrated to provide specific alarming characteristics. To illustrate, consider an application where a light needs to be turned on when a high alarm trip point is reached.

If the SPDT relay is non-failsafe, it is de-energized when in normal state (Figure 15), and energized when in alarm state. Therefore, when the trip point is exceeded, the relay energizes and sends the contact from NC to NO, turning on the light. Note that the light has to be wired to the NO side of the contact so that when the high trip occurs, the relay energizes and the circuit will close between the NO and Common (C) terminals.

Fail safe Alarm Trip

If the SPDT relay is failsafe, by definition it is energized when in normal state and de-energized when in alarm state. When the trip point is exceeded, the relay de- energizes and sends the contact from NO to NC (Figure16), turning on the light by completing the circuit between the NC and C terminals.

In this configuration, the light needs to be wired to the NC side of the contact. As stated earlier, this strategy is preferred because if power to the alarm trip is lost, an alarm is initiated to warn of trouble.

The alarm trip fires its relay at the trip point and the relay resets when the process variable reaches the deadband point. Without deadband, if the process variable was hovering and cycling above or below the trip point, the relay would be chattering on and off, leading to premature failure. By setting the deadband just one or two percent away from the trip point, you can avoid excessive relay wear (Figure 17).

A latching alarm is one where the relay cannot automatically reset. Once the relay trips, it remains in the alarm condition until an operator manually resets the relay (usually through a push button). Latching alarms are most commonly employed when you want to force an operator to acknowledge the alarm condition.

Contact Ratings and Precautions

The contact rating of relays used in alarm trips range from one to 10 amps. A typical annunciator requires only a higher amperage device, such as a pump, an interposing relay can be used. To avoid needlessly damaging relays, two precautions must be taken. First, never operate a contact higher than its rating, even if it is momentarily. The rating of the alarms trip’s relay should meet or

exceed the device it controls to insure reliable operations. Second, consider the implication of the load’s behavior. Capacitive loads create inrush current at the startup, which can damage a relay contact, while the arcing created by an inductive load can vaporize a relay contact. Motor loads can have inrush currents five to six times normal run current.

In many applications, a momentary over-range signal may not warrant an alarm trip. Some alarm trips can be set with an alarm response time delay that stops the alarm from going into an alarm condition unless the trip point has been exceeded for a specific time period (Figure 18). This can be used to stop false or premature alarms.

Transmitter Excitation

Some limit alarm trips offer the advantage of being able to provide 24Vdc power to a 2-wire (loop-powered) transmitter (Figure 19). This saves the cost of specifying and installing an additional instrument power supply.

Alarm Trip for 24v DC Loop

Worldwide Safety Trend

Perhaps the most important role that “Hard” alarm trips will play in the future is their role in Safety Related applications.

In recent years, there has been a growing concern on improving the safety of process operations. Increased efforts to protect personnel, product, equipment and the environment stems from the possible threat of explosions, fires and toxic releases. Other interest is based on first hand accounts that improving safety and increasing reliability reduces costly downtime and production costs. These concerns led the IEC to issue standard IEC 61508 Functional Safety of Electrical/ Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety Related Systems.

Limit alarm trips are increasingly asked to play a role in Safety Related Systems (SRS) as primary alarm stategies, to back up “soft” PLC and DCS alarms, and in other especially critical applications such as those that require 2-out-of-3 voting strategies (Figure 20).

Alarms in 2 out of 3 voting logic

FMEDA Reports

To help companies implement Safety Related Systems (also called Safety Instrumented Systems or SIS), some limit alarm trips are available with Failure Modes, Effects and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA) reports. An FMEDA is a detailed circuit and performance evaluation that estimates the failure rates, failure modes, and diagnostic capability of a device. It includes both mathematical analysis and specific physical tests.

The results of the analysis include verifying the instrument’s predictable and repeatable failure mode(s), and determining its associated failure rates. It is employed by the instrument user to determine the suitability for use of a specific device in a safety related application.

As IEC 61508 gains popularity throughout the world, we can expect to see limit alarm trips, as well as most other process instrumentation, being specifically designed and approved to the IEC 61508 standard.

Avoid Nuisance Trips: 2-Out-of-3 Voting

Some processes are simply too important to rely on a single alarm trip to make a decision. For these, limit alarm trips can be can be used in a voting strategy.

For example, one plant engineer was using 3 temperature sensors to monitor the burn-off flame of an emissions flare stack. However, when the wind blew, the flame leaning away from the stack gives a false output signal. The solution was to change the strategy to rely on low readings from two sensors to indicate no flame in a 2-out- of-3 voting scheme. This ladder rung approach creates a “flame out circuit” only in the event that two of the three alarms are tripped. Using an alarm time delay with this strategy will also help prevent false trips (Figure 20).

Source: Moore Industries

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6 thoughts on “Basics of Alarms and Trips”

You covered all topics in alarms of control systems. Thanks

Very informative.

The images are not loading…and plz provide a “print to pdf” version link.

Okay, I will check and update.

Dear friend,

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thanks and regards

some time we found one transmitter utilize for two functionality, for control and ESD trip, my question is, in which standard we can find guidance clearly mention that 1 transmitter can not use for 2 functionality (for ESD trip and for controller input)

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Safe Travels! Revealing the Meaning and Proper Use Behind the Popular Expression

Posted: November 16, 2023 | Last updated: November 16, 2023

Your best friend is about to embark on an adventure around the world.

“Safe travels!” you exclaim as they head out for their trip.

What does the expression really mean? Where did it come from? And did you even say it right?

Here’s everything you wanted to know about the expression, plus helpful tips to make sure your wish becomes a reality!

What Does Safe Travels Mean?

We say “safe travels” when someone we care about is about to take a trip. It means we’re wishing them well on their journey, hoping that everything goes smoothly and they arrive back home safe and happy.

The phrase is a simple platitude. It’s something we say to convey we care about someone and wish them the best in what they’re doing (in this case, traveling).

Where Did the Expression “Safe Travels” Come From?

The desire for safe travels has a deep history. People have wished their loved ones well on their journeys since the dawn of human civilization, and the practice continues today.

Ancient Rituals for Protecting Travels

In ancient times, leaving the safety of the homestead was fraught with dangers but necessary for the ever-waging wars and pursuit of trade.

Soldiers heading out to the battlefield engaged in a wide range of rituals to secure blessings and “safe travels” from priests or gods. The Romans took heading off to battle seriously , making sacrifices to ensure a fleet’s safe passage and conducting ritual cleansing of soldier’s feet.

Ancient societies called upon the Gods for protection for all types of journeys. The Norse conducted blood sacrifices before a quest, the Ancient Greeks blessed Hermes , and the Ancient Egyptians worshipped Khonsu , who watched over travelers at night.

Modern Adaptations

Though most of our modern journeys are not subject to the same horrors as those in ancient times, the ritual of wishing someone well before they leave remains.

Some still pray to their chosen deity, asking them to grant a loved one a safe trip, while others stick to the platitude, but however you wish to express it, the meaning remains the same.

We want our loved ones to stay safe on their journey.

The Root of the Expression “Safe Travels”

Now that we understand the idea behind the phrase, let us dive into the English language phrase itself.

“Safe travels” is a modern, truncated way to say “I wish you safety during your travels,” which is a version of other phrases with the same meaning.

“Have a safe trip” and “I hope you have a safe journey” are two examples, but people use various verbiage to convey the same message.

The expression was modernized even more with the “have a safe flight” variety, which specifies well wishes for air travel. The phrase originates with other expressions of safety for journeys, such as “have a safe voyage” and “bon voyage!” which, historically, is related to a journey by sea.

Is It Safe Travel or Safe Travels?

When wishing someone safety on their pending trip, should you say “safe travels” or “safe travel”?

The word “safe” is an adjective, and the word “travel” acts as a noun in this sense. Grammar software often tells you to correct “safe travels” to “safe travel.”

But that doesn’t sound right.

“I wish you a safe travel” sounds wrong, but “I wish you safe travels” has a nice ring to it.  Although both are technically correct, we usually think of “your travels” as a complete set of movements you will take during a trip rather than a single event, which makes it plural.

Making Your Wish for Safe Travels a Reality

Can saying “safe travels” be more than a platitude?

Here’s what you should do to help ensure your loved one has a safe trip.


The ancients may have been on to something in asking the Gods for safe passage. If you’re spiritual, consider asking the deity you worship to watch over your loved one on their trip.

Keep in Touch

The sooner you know something is wrong, the better your chances of correcting it. Keep in regular contact with your loved one during their trip, but don’t be overbearing about it.

If they’re going someplace that’s typically safe, there’s no need to check in every five minutes. Perhaps once a day or once every other day will suffice. However, if they’re going someplace that might be more dangerous or with limited connectivity, make a contact schedule and insist they stay with it.

Know Their Route

Keep a copy of their itinerary to know where they’re supposed to be. Keep abreast of current events in their destinations. They may not have the time or connectivity to check the news, but you can send them any new travel warnings and advisories that may pop up.

Make a Plan

While they are preparing for a trip, help develop a plan for what they will do if something goes wrong. Cover every possibility, from a stolen wallet or passport to a massive unscheduled protest. Consider the common scams in their destinations, and help them devise ways to protect themselves from these scammers. For example, many European countries have pickpockets, so advise them to watch their belongings and have a backup plan.

Talking about the potential safety hazards before they go will help them respond when an emergency happens.

Pack them a Safety Bag

Sometimes, we can offer gifts to keep them safe. If they’re going on a road trip , get them a roadside emergency bag for their car. If they’ll be staying at random hotels, gift them a doorstopper so they can prevent random people from breaking in. You can even put essential but often overlooked items like sunscreen, a first aid kit, or an in-flight survival kit.

The safety bag should be easy to carry and offer essentials for their specific trip.

Medical Protection

No one wants to think about getting sick on their trip, but it’s best to plan for the worst and hope for the best. If they’re traveling overseas, advise them to get travel insurance, which will help them get treatment in any country or get home in case of illness.

Ensure they’re up to date on all their vaccinations if they’re traveling to a country with a disease that’s uncommon in the US. Some countries have infectious diseases such as Malaria, Dengue fever, and Tuberculosis.

Check with the CDC (Center for Disease Control) and the World Health  Organization for a list of recommended immunizations.

The last thing you can do to ensure your loved one has a safe trip is to provide a safety net in case of any problems. Be there to grab them an emergency flight, hotel, or rental car. Let them know they can count on you if something goes wrong.

You should also ensure that someone back home has complete color copies of their essential travel documents. Make copies of passports and IDs. If these items get stolen, you can send the copies to the local embassy, which will help them get replacements.

Travel is Typically Safe

Stop stressing. It’s unlikely that your loved one is heading off to a war-torn country with an unsafe rating from the Department of Safe.

The majority of tourist destinations around the world are completely safe. While travel safety is vital, letting them enjoy the trip and experience the world is also crucial.

Wish them safe travels, but don’t obsess over it. They’ll be fine!

Safe Travels! Revealing the Meaning and Proper Use Behind the Popular Expression

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Definition of trip

 (Entry 1 of 2)

intransitive verb

transitive verb

Definition of trip  (Entry 2 of 2)

  • peregrination

Examples of trip in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'trip.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

Middle English trippen , from Anglo-French treper, triper , of Germanic origin; akin to Old English treppan to tread — more at trap

14th century, in the meaning defined at intransitive sense 3a

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 5

Phrases Containing trip

  • lay / put a guilt trip on
  • roll / trip off the tongue
  • business trip
  • round - trip ticket
  • trip - hammer
  • trip the light fantastic
  • on a power trip

Dictionary Entries Near trip


Cite this Entry

“Trip.” Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, Accessed 18 Nov. 2023.

Kids Definition

Kids definition of trip.

Kids Definition of trip  (Entry 2 of 2)

More from Merriam-Webster on trip

Nglish: Translation of trip for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of trip for Arabic Speakers

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a journey or voyage: to win a trip to Paris.

a journey, voyage, or run made by a boat, train, bus, or the like, between two points: It's a short trip from Baltimore to Philadelphia.

round trip (defs. 1, 2) .

a single journey or course of travel taken as part of one's duty, work, etc.: his daily trip to the bank.

a stumble; misstep .

a sudden impeding or catching of a person's foot so as to throw the person down, especially in wrestling.

a slip, mistake, error, or blunder.

an error or lapse in conduct or etiquette.

a light, nimble step or movement of the feet.

Machinery .

a projecting object mounted on a moving part for striking a control lever to stop, reverse, or otherwise control the actions of some machine, as a milling machine or printing press.

a sudden release or start.

a catch of fish taken by a fishing vessel in a single voyage.

an instance or period of being under the influence of a hallucinogenic drug, especially LSD.

the euphoria, illusions, etc., experienced during such a period.

any stimulating or exciting experience: The class reunion was a real trip.

any intense interest or preoccupation: She's been on a nostalgia trip all week.

a period of time, experience, or lifestyle: Those early years in college were a bad trip.

to stumble: to trip over a child's toy.

to make a slip, error, or mistake, as in conversation or conduct.

to step lightly or nimbly; skip ; dance .

to go with a light, quick step or tread: She tripped gaily across the room.

to make a journey or excursion.

to tip or tilt.

Horology . (of a tooth on an escape wheel) to slide past the face of the pallet by which it is supposed to be locked and strike the pallet in such a way as to move the balance or pendulum improperly.

Slang . to be under the influence of a hallucinogenic drug, especially LSD (often followed by out ): He tripped out on peyote.

to cause to stumble (often followed by up ): The rug tripped him up.

to cause to fail; hinder, obstruct, or overthrow.

to cause to make a slip or error (often followed by up ): to trip up a witness by skillful questioning.

to catch in a slip or error.

to break out (an anchor) by turning over or lifting from the bottom by a line ( tripping line ) attached to the anchor's crown.

to tip or turn (a yard) from a horizontal to a vertical position.

to lift (an upper mast) before lowering.

to operate, start, or set free (a mechanism, weight, etc.) by suddenly releasing a catch, clutch, or the like.

Machinery . to release or operate suddenly (a catch, clutch, etc.).

wedge (def. 17) .

to tread or dance lightly upon (the ground, floor, etc.).

Archaic . to perform with a light or tripping step, as a dance.

Idioms about trip

lay a trip on , Slang . to inflict one's preoccupations or obsessions on (another person): Mother's been trying to lay a guilt trip on me about leaving home.

trip the light fantastic , Facetious . to go dancing.

Origin of trip

Synonym study for trip, other words for trip, other words from trip.

  • un·tripped, adjective

Words Nearby trip

  • trio sonata
  • tripalmitin
  • tripartite and fretty
  • tripartition

Other definitions for trip (2 of 2)

a group of animals, as sheep, goats, or fowl; flock . Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2023

How to use trip in a sentence

The show will also include documenting the winner’s ISS trip , including their launch and 10-day space station stay, as well as their return journey and landing.

They’re waterproof, which makes them good for whitewater trips, too.

Some said, “That’ll be the trip of your life,” while others noted, “That place will change you.”

It’s here that my parents told me to take a trip to the village to search for these answers on my own.

Case would even offer to fly out promising and hard-to-reach startups to have them join the trip .

Finding the shop is a trip in itself and an introduction to a slice of history.

Anthony Goldstein probably chose a trip to the Quidditch World Cup over his Birthright trip to Israel.

After my first trip to his place in Tucson we called one another on the telephone.

“During this trip , I did as a lone wolf, I risked a lot,” he said.

My trip takes the reverse path, and I begin by assessing the depth of my Shakespeare knowledge in his birthplace.

The Comet started on her first trip up the Arkansas, being the first steam boat that ascended that river.

Liszt has returned from his trip , and I have played to him twice this week, and am to go again on Monday.

But Punch was five; and he knew that going to England would be much nicer than a trip to Nassick.

The Italian trip was discussed, and considerable ignorance of geography was, as is usual, manifested by all present.

I knowed, a-course, that I could go kick up a fuss when Simpson stopped by his office on his trip back from Goldstone.

British Dictionary definitions for trip

/ ( trɪp ) /

an outward and return journey, often for a specific purpose

any tour, journey, or voyage

a false step; stumble

any slip or blunder

a light step or tread

a manoeuvre or device to cause someone to trip

Also called: tripper

any catch on a mechanism that acts as a switch

( as modifier ) : trip button

a surge in the conditions of a chemical or other automatic process resulting in an instability

informal a hallucinogenic drug experience

informal any stimulating, profound, etc, experience

(often foll by up, or when intr, by on or over ) to stumble or cause to stumble

to make or cause to make a mistake or blunder

( tr often foll by up ) to trap or catch in a mistake

(intr) to go on a short tour or journey

(intr) to move or tread lightly

(intr) informal to experience the effects of LSD or any other hallucinogenic drug

to activate (a mechanical trip)

trip a switch to switch electric power off by moving the switch armature to disconnect the supply

  • See also trip out

Derived forms of trip

  • trippingly , adverb

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Other Idioms and Phrases with trip

In addition to the idioms beginning with trip

  • triple threat
  • trip the light fantastic

The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

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Modal Split - Definition & Meaning

What is modal split.

Modal Split is the percentage of travellers using a particular type of transportation or number of trips using said type. In freight transportation, this may be measured in mass. Modal spilt is the third stage of the travel demand modelling. The trip matrix generated from the problem is divided into number of matrices each representing a node.

The below is the flowchart of a travel demand modelling

trip mode on meaning

Types of Modal Spilt Modals

1) Trip end modal spilt models

The application of mode choice models over the population results in trips split by mode, hence modal split modelling. In the past (especially in the USA) personal characteristics were considered to be the most important determinants of mode choice and attempts were made to apply modal split models immediately after trip generation. In this way the different characteristics of the individuals could be preserved and used to estimate modal split. At this level there was no indication to where these trips might go, the characteristics of the journey and modes were omitted from these models. This approach was consistent with a planning view that as income grew – individuals would acquire cars and would want to use them. These modal split models of this time related the choice of mode to features like income, residential density, car ownership and the availability of reasonable public transport. These trips in the short run were accurate, in particular if public transport is available in an area. These models were seen to be defeatist in that any changes to the cost of a trip or the mode used would have no effect on modal split according to these trip-end models.

2) Trip interchange modal9split models

Modal split modelling in Europe are post distribution models. These are models applied after the gravity or other distribution model. This approach has the benefit of facilitating the inclusion of the characteristics of the journey and the alternative modes available to undertake these trips. The early models typically included one or two characteristics of the journey (in vehicle travel time). One important limitation of these models is that they can only be used for trip matrices of travellers with a choice available to them. This would mean the matrix of car available persons, although modal split can also be applied to the choice between different public transport modes.

3) Aggregate and disaggregate models

Mode choice could be aggregate if they are based on zonal and inter-zonal information. They can be called disaggregate if they are based on household or individual data.

Hence, this concludes the definition of Modal Split along with its overview.

This article has been researched & authored by the Business Concepts Team . It has been reviewed & published by the MBA Skool Team. The content on MBA Skool has been created for educational & academic purpose only.

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TripMode 4+

Data usage monitor & control.

  • 4.6 • 78 Ratings
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--- Now fully compatible with macOS Ventura and Sonoma --- WHAT IS TRIPMODE? Ever got stuck on a slow Wi-Fi, iPhone hotspot, or reached your data limit because of unwanted background updates? TripMode will save you from these nightmares, by blocking all unnecessary traffic automatically and giving you full visibility on your network traffic! Save data when traveling, optimize bandwidth when doing online video calls, block distractions when working, or simply have a companion that keeps an eye out for unusual online activity. A RECOGNIZED SOLUTION Acclaimed by the New York Times, MacWorld (5/5 rating), The Next Web, Daring Fireball, and more. SAVE DATA AND SURF FASTER • Data blocking: stop all unwanted internet traffic. Only allow the apps that you need. • Hotspot detection: save data automatically, the second you connect to a limited network. • Live Monitor: see the internet data usage of each app or in total. In real time. • Bandwidth analyzer: monitor the network usage of your Mac in real time, by having a speedometer for all your apps. • Reports: keep track of your data usage per day, week, month, … • Profiles: set custom blocking rules for work, video calls, gaming, … every scenario. • Data plan limits: block all data transfers when reaching the limits imposed by your ISP or carrier. • App inspector: Identify suspicious traffic by seeing where your apps connect to. • Data plan limits: stop all traffic automatically when reaching a predefined data limit. • Scheduler: block or allow traffic at specific times. Perfect to focus and stop distractions. • Simple firewall: decide whether to block apps when they try to connect. • Advanced customisation: AppleScript support, counter reset, and more. • Privacy preferences: erase your domain history • Always-on mode: make sure all of your internet traffic is filtered, regardless of the network your Mac is connected to • Dark mode: TripMode is easy on your eyes at any time of day • Easy to use: drag the window around your screen and resize it for even more visibility on your network traffic. SUBSCRIPTION INFO TripMode requires a subscription or a Lifetime in-app purchase to be fully used. A subscription or a Lifetime in-app purchase include full access to TripMode to you and anyone in your Family Sharing group. A feature limited free mode is available. Launch TripMode to begin your free 7-day trial. You can cancel during the trial at any point, and won't be charged for using TripMode. After 7 days of starting a trial, you'll automatically be billed $14.99/year (or the equivalent in your country) through an automatic subscription. An active subscription or a Lifetime in-app purchase entitle you to unlimited TripMode app updates, including minor updates and major new features! You can cancel your subscription at any time. If you do, once you reach the end of your subscription period, the app will go into a feature-limited free mode. Simply restart your subscription at any time to fully use TripMode again. See our subscription terms here: See our privacy policy here:

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The Harvard Gazette

How big a deal is meeting between biden, xi pretty big, chan school study plays key role in successful suit against airline uniform maker, national & world affairs.

President Joe Biden, right, stands with Chinese President Xi Jinping.

During his visit to the U.S., Chinese President Xi Jinping is expected to meet with President Biden, their first face-to-face meeting in a year.

Alex Brandon/AP file photo

Longtime China watcher Tony Saich says two nations want to stabilize ties a bit amid troubling levels of tension

By Christina Pazzanese Harvard Staff Writer

Date November 14, 2023 November 14, 2023

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trip mode on meaning

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trip mode on meaning

U.S. men die nearly six years before women, reflecting largest gap since 1996

trip mode on meaning

China President Xi Jinping will be in San Francisco to speak with business leaders attending a gathering of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) this week. It’s his first visit to the U.S. since a 2017 meeting with then-President Donald Trump at his Mar-A-Lago resort in Florida. On Wednesday, Xi is expected to sit down with President Biden for their first face-to-face meeting in a year.

Though not a formal state visit, it’s nevertheless a complicated, high-stakes sideline meeting given the deterioration of relations between the U.S. and China since January, when a spy balloon was discovered floating over the Western U.S. and Canada. Both nations have slapped trade tariffs and technology sanctions on each other and cut off communications between their respective militaries. There have been several recent near-misses in the Pacific involving the two nations’ armed forces.

The Gazette spoke with Tony Saich, Daewoo Professor of International Affairs at Harvard Kennedy School and director of the Rajawali Foundation Institute for Asia, about what to expect from this unofficial summit. The interview has been edited for clarity and length.

GAZETTE:  Why is President Xi coming now and why this particular event?

SAICH:  There are two particular reasons. First, I think for him not to attend the APEC meetings would send a signal to many of the countries in the region that China really has turned inward. And it would also give the United States of America a prime opportunity to position itself as a leader across the APEC community given that this meeting is taking place in San Francisco.

Secondly, the domestic situation for Xi Jinping has also changed significantly. In March, Xi and the foreign minister were both highly critical of the United States of America and really saw the problems in the relationship as stemming from U.S. attitudes and U.S. practices. Now, if you fast-forward to when Senator Chuck Schumer was visiting [in October], we had comments from Xi Jinping that he can think of 1,000 reasons why the relationship should be better and couldn’t think of one why it should be worse.

Why that shift? I think there are two primary reasons. The first is that the Chinese economy is in trouble, and growth rates have slowed significantly. The rebound that was expected post-COVID hasn’t really maintained, and China really needs global engagement and investment to keep the economy moving forward. I think it was indicative that Xi Jinping wanted to meet first with business leaders before meeting with President Biden — that was nixed by the White House. It was clear that what he wanted was to try to use the business community, telling them China’s still open for business, to put pressure on Washington to back off on its restrictions of exports to China.

China has been taken aback by the strength of the West’s reactions to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. That has led to an unexpected isolation internationally for China, which it had not anticipated. So, there’s a lot of pressure on Xi Jinping to try to put a floor under the relationship.

Tony Saich.

“Things are as bad as I can remember since diplomatic relations were restored [in the late 1970s],” said Tony Saich. “Across the board, there’s disagreement on almost everything, with one possible exception of the challenge of climate change.”

Photo by Winston Tang

GAZETTE:  You first visited China as a student in 1976 and have a long connection to that nation. How strained are relations right now between the two countries?

SAICH:  Things are as bad as I can remember since diplomatic relations were restored [in the late 1970s]. And it cuts across a whole range of issues from security challenges, practices domestically in China, what China perceives as the United States’ efforts to constrain China’s development and its rise. Across the board, there’s disagreement on almost everything, with one possible exception of the challenge of climate change.

GAZETTE:  What does Xi want to accomplish with this visit and what issues will he focus on?

SAICH:  At one level, he’ll want to send the message that China is open for business, that he does still welcome American investment in China. Secondly, I think he wants to counteract what the administration calls “small yard, high fence.” And what it means by that is a limited restriction on export of semiconductors and those goods that might be used for geotechnology, i.e., for military use. So, I think he wants to push back on making sure that the restrictions of exports to China don’t increase the impact on other areas of the economy.

And then third, I think there’s going to be attempts for him to push back on what he sees as U.S. alliances within Asia that he sees as constraining China’s developments, trying to get some assurance from Washington about the attitude toward Taiwan. I don’t think he’s going to shift the needle significantly on Washington’s view, but at least get some encouraging comment that he can sell back home, along the lines of “President Biden said they’re not going to encourage independence. They’re completely opposed to it. And they will restrain any possible actions in that direction that anybody in Taiwan might consider.”

GAZETTE:  What does the U.S. hope to accomplish?

SAICH:  I think Washington has also realized that some level of a relationship has to be maintained. There are certain global challenges that are important to the U.S., not just climate change, but other things around oceans and public health issues, etc., which really can’t be resolved without engaging China in some way or another. So, at that level, perhaps what the White House is hoping is it will legitimize discussions between officials who are dealing more with the day-to-day operational aspects of the relationship.

Secondly, Washington really wants to revive military-to-military contacts, which were cut off after the wandering balloon across North America and also severely restricted after Speaker Nancy Pelosi visited Taiwan. Washington sees some ability to communicate at the military level is extremely important.

And then, for U.S. domestic consumption, it will want to at least get to some decent agreements about a level playing field for the economy, while also showing that Washington still hasn’t forgotten questions around human rights issues and persecution of Uighurs in Xinjiang, northwest China. One possible area for a joint comment might be with respect to cracking down on Chinese companies that produce and export the chemicals that make fentanyl.

GAZETTE:   There have been several near-misses, in the air and on the sea, between the U.S. and China military recently. The Biden administration hopes to re-establish military communications coming out of this meeting. How much of a positive would that be?

SAICH:  It’s a huge positive. In such a contested part of the world, where accidents could immediately spin out of control into a major conflagration, having no ability to communicate is a terrible situation. I heard from people, for example, with the balloon incident that no one was picking up the phone in Beijing. What we’ve seen historically, it takes a long time for the Chinese system to kick into responding to crises. So, some kind of mechanism for better communication to prevent the unforeseen expanding into a major conflict is really crucial. And I hope both sides can recognize that.

GAZETTE:  Are there areas for Xi and Biden to find common ground?

SAICH:  What we have seen is climate change envoy John Kerry and envoy Xie Zhenhua, who covers the climate areas in China, have fairly consistently had a decent working relationship and seem to have moved the needle along. And that is important preceding the next COP meeting. There needs to be some alignment of interest between the U.S. and China. So that is one key area of importance where the two may be able to push ahead with agreements. That, at least, would be a good starting point.

GAZETTE:  Both the U.S. and China have stated their economic interdependence makes cooperation and open dialogue vital. Should the U.S. rely on anything China says or promises, especially given a New York Times report this week that, in meetings with his military, Xi has expressed the view that the relationship between the nations is a zero-sum game?

SAICH:  It’s not unusual for politicians to say one thing in public and then something else when they’re not in public. I don’t think the U.S. should rely on anything that is said either in private talks or what is said in public because we’ve seen China, across a range of issues, saying one thing, but acting differently.

Take the business arena, for example. China is talking up a positive business environment, but then you see the kinds of restrictions and investigations and closing down of information channels that have been happening domestically in China. This seems to undercut what is being said publicly.

It is quite clear that Xi Jinping consistently has believed that the American intention is to constrain China. He also believes that the West is in decline while China is rising, and this is China’s opportunity to exert greater influence in global affairs and global governance. Now, we might dispute that, but I think that certainly drives a lot of his real actions.

GAZETTE:  Xi met a few weeks ago with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Last year, they famously proclaimed the close relationship between China and Russia had “no limits.” Any signs that’s changed at all?

SAICH:  I’m sure Washington is going to ask China to use any influence it may have on Putin to restrain the activities in the invasion of Ukraine. But consistently, it has continued to support Russia’s primary talking points, that the situation is created by the West, with the expansion of NATO, and thus it is, therefore, primarily a problem created by the United States of America.

I think Xi and Putin’s relationship is genuine, is very beneficial for Beijing. It’s quite clear Russia is now the junior partner. A weakened but not unstable Russia is extremely valuable to China in terms of oil, gas, and other raw materials it needs to build up its own strength for what it sees as the major problem, the long-term strained relationship and potential conflict with the U.S. The more the U.S. gets deflected from being able to focus on the pivot and turn back to building up capabilities in the Asia Pacific, the happier that will make Beijing.

GAZETTE:  Does China have a favorite candidate in the 2024 presidential election?

SAICH:  What I hear from people in China is that there is a preference for Donald Trump because they think that will be very chaotic and potentially detrimental for the U.S. — that’s their opinion.

They’ve been very disappointed with the Biden administration because they felt the administration might pull back from some of the measures President Trump brought in toward the end of his administration. They found, in many ways, that the Biden administration is probably tougher and more consistent and more coherent in its approach toward China. Both that it didn’t lift the tariffs that President Trump had brought in, that it’s brought in new restrictions around advanced semiconductor exports, and that it has really pushed hard to revitalize traditional alliances in the region.

American Airlines aircrafts.

Tony Gutierrez/AP Photo

  • Main content

The Fed will shift to 'full-on accommodation' mode in 2024 with nearly 3 percentage points of rate cuts as economy slows, UBS says

  • The Federal Reserve will shock markets with aggressive interest rate cuts next year, UBS says.
  • UBS said slow economic growth would drive the Fed to cut rates by 275 basis points by the end of 2024.
  • "We expect substantially slower growth in 2024, a rising unemployment rate, and meaningful reductions in the federal funds rate," UBS said.

Insider Today

The Federal Reserve is going to shock investors next year by aggressively cutting interest rates amid a slowing economy, UBS says.

The firm said in its 2024 economic outlook it expected economic growth to slow considerably next year after this year's brisk pace of growth , and that should lead to reduced retail spending, a worsening consumer balance sheet, and a continued rise in the unemployment rate.

"We expect economic growth to slow sharply in the next few quarters, with a mild contraction worth half a percentage point in the middle of the year," UBS said in a Monday note.

The firm said that over the course of the whole year, it expected GDP to grow just 0.3% in 2024, representing a marked slowdown from the 3% gain over the past four quarters.

Meanwhile, UBS said it expected the unemployment rate to rise more than a full percentage point from current levels to 5.0% at the end of next year. By March, it said, the Fed will start to slightly tweak rates lower.

"However, as the slowdown in the economy and the extra disinflationary leg begin in earnest, we expect the Fed in the second half of the year to turn to full-on accommodation, with more rate reductions, in line with what it has done historically."

UBS said it expected the Fed to cut rates by 275 basis points, leaving the effective federal funds rate at 2.50%-2.75%. The Fed currently has rates set at 5.25% to 5.50%.

That's well ahead of market expectations indicated by data from the CME FedWatch Tool, which expects just 75 basis points of cuts in 2024 that will send the fed funds rate to 4.50%-4.75%. 

Driving UBS's sharp estimate for a reduction in interest rates is their expectation that disinflation will continue throughout 2024, giving the Fed confidence that inflation has been tamed amid slowing economic growth.

UBS said that it expected the Fed to get serious about cutting interest rates in 2024 and that a lack of fiscal policy support from Washington, DC, would drive the Fed to move forward with the interest-rate cuts.

"The historically wide budget deficit, a coming presidential election, and a fractured political landscape to us implies little room for cyclical fiscal support," UBS explained.  

trip mode on meaning

Watch: What people get wrong about the market's favorite recession signal, according to a Wall Street strategist

trip mode on meaning


  1. How to Plan a Trip with Mind Maps

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  4. Trip modes of people.

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  1. Trip mode definition

    a journey made to and from a place within one day ♦ day-tripper something undertaken to boost or draw attention to a person's own image or appraisal of himself ♦ ego-trip , -trips, -tripping, -tripped an expedition, as by a group of students or research workers, to study something at first hand

  2. PDF DTA Manual, Appendix K: DTS Tables

    The Joint Travel Regulation (JTR) identifies the type of trips allowable for official travel. Table K-1 provides the description of options available in theDTS Trip Typedrop-down list that...

  3. Trip on

    Definition of trip on in the Idioms Dictionary. trip on phrase. What does trip on expression mean? Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. ... Trip Distribution-Mode Choice; trip down memory lane; trip down memory lane, a; Trip End Model Presentation Program; trip for biscuits; trip hammer; trip hammer; trip hammer;

  4. TripMode: Manage the Internet Access of Mac Apps when you Travel

    How TripMode works. TripMode lives in your Mac's menubar, where it appears as a friendly little train icon. Click it, and a drop-down menu shows all the apps running on your Mac, with a checkbox next to each one. Check an app and it's allowed to connect to the Internet. If it's unchecked, it can't connect. Since both uploads and downloads are ...

  5. TRIP

    noun uk / trɪp / us / trɪp / trip noun (JOURNEY) Add to word list A2 [ C ] a journey in which you go somewhere, usually for a short time, and come back again: trip from somewhere to somewhere The trip from York to Newcastle takes about an hour by train. on a trip We're going on a trip to Norway this summer.

  6. Mode of transport

    Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish between different ways of transportation or transporting people or goods. The different modes of transport are air, water, and land transport, which includes rails or railways, road and off-road transport.Other modes of transport also exist, including pipelines, cable transport, and space transport. Human-powered transport and animal-powered ...

  7. Mode choice

    Mode choice is the process where the means of traveling is determined. The means of travel is referred to the travel mode, which may be by private automobile, public transportation, walking, bicycling, or other means. How desirable a travel mode is usually is expressed using utilities. In most travel models, mode choice is applied to travel ...

  8. What I Wish I Knew Before Visiting Bali, Indonesia

    Here are 4 things I wish I knew before visiting. Priya Raj. The author at Bodyworks spa in Seminyak, Bali (left), The aftermath of a day of rain in Bali (right). Priya Raj / Business Insider. In April, I went on a trip to Bali, Indonesia. In 2020, my trip was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic so I was thrilled to finally visit.

  9. Trip

    When you trip, you stumble or lose your footing. As a noun, a trip is a journey or outing, like your trip to the library yesterday or your trip to Japan last summer. ... (although it's not very nice to do so on purpose). The 14th-century meaning of the verb was "tread lightly and nimbly, dance, or caper." Experts aren't quite sure how trip got ...

  10. TripMode

    TripMode lists all the apps that are requesting internet access and blocks them by default. You can choose which apps get internet access and see their total data usage. 🎉NEW: You can now also always allow internet access to newly detected apps, making it a perfect traffic monitoring companion.

  11. Basics of Alarms and Trips

    Basics of Alarms and Trips. Alarm/Trip : Something happens—a signal peaks or falls—and you need to know. A limit alarm trip can trigger the response needed to maintain normal, and safe, operations. A limit alarm trip monitors a process signal (such as one representing temperature, pressure, level or flow) and compares it against a preset limit.

  12. 3.4: Trip Generation

    3.4: Trip Generation. Trip Generation is the first step in the conventional four-step transportation forecasting process (followed by Destination Choice, Mode Choice, and Route Choice), widely used for forecasting travel demands. It predicts the number of trips originating in or destined for a particular traffic analysis zone.

  13. Safe Travels! Revealing the Meaning and Proper Use Behind the ...

    The Root of the Expression "Safe Travels". Now that we understand the idea behind the phrase, let us dive into the English language phrase itself. "Safe travels" is a modern, truncated way ...

  14. Trip Definition & Meaning

    verb ˈtrip tripped; tripping Synonyms of trip intransitive verb 1 : to catch the foot against something so as to stumble 2 : to make a mistake or false step (as in morality or accuracy) 3 a : to dance, skip, or caper with light quick steps b : to walk with light quick steps 4 : to stumble in articulation when speaking 5 : to make a journey 6 a

  15. TRIP Definition & Usage Examples

    Trip definition: a journey or voyage. See examples of TRIP used in a sentence.


    DEFINITION - A trip by one person in any mode of transportation. This is the most basic and universal measure of personal travel. Each record in the Travel Day file in the NHTS dataset represents one person trip. EXAMPLES - Two household members travelling together in one car are counted as two person trips.

  17. Urban Dictionary: trip mode

    means u r really trippin. © 1999-2023 Urban Dictionary ® ads; help; privacy; terms of service; dmca; accessibility statement

  18. Modal Split

    The trip matrix generated from the problem is divided into number of matrices each representing a node. The below is the flowchart of a travel demand modelling. Types of Modal Spilt Modals. 1) Trip end modal spilt models. The application of mode choice models over the population results in trips split by mode, hence modal split modelling.

  19. Four-Step Travel Model

    This procedure is called trip generation, and it estimates the number of "trip ends" produced in and/or attracted to each transportation analysis zone (TAZ) in the region. Each trip is made of two "trip ends," one at the production end of the trip and one at the attraction end of the trip. In the TPB model, eight trip purposes are modeled.

  20. ‎TripMode on the Mac App Store

    A feature limited free mode is available. Launch TripMode to begin your free 7-day trial. You can cancel during the trial at any point, and won't be charged for using TripMode. After 7 days of starting a trial, you'll automatically be billed $14.99/year (or the equivalent in your country) through an automatic subscription.

  21. TripMode for Windows

    TripMode lists all apps that are asking for Internet access, blocks them all by default. You get to allow the ones that matter to you. See the total data usage. Set pre-dermined limits to keep control over your spending. Try it for free.

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